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system of learning a craft or trade from one who is engaged in it and of paying for the instruction by a given number of years of work. The practice was known in ancient Babylon, Egypt, Greece, and Rome, as well as in modern Europe and to some extent in the United States. Typically, in medieval Europe, a master craftsman agreed to instruct a young man, to give him shelter, food, and clothing, and to care for him during illness. The apprentice would bind himself to work for the master for a given time. After that time he would become a journeyman, working for a master for wages, or he set up as a master himself. The medieval guildsguilds
or gilds,
economic and social associations of persons engaging in the same business or craft, typical of Western Europe in the Middle Ages. Membership was by profession or craft, and the primary function was to establish local control over that profession or
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 supervised the relation of master and apprentice and decided the number of apprentices in a given guild. The Industrial Revolution, with its introduction of machinery, put an end to most of these guilds, but apprenticeship continues in highly skilled trades, at times competing with vocational training schools (see vocational educationvocational education,
training designed to advance individuals' general proficiency, especially in relation to their present or future occupations. The term does not normally include training for the professions.
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The terms of apprenticeship are regulated by many labor agreements as well as by law. The U.S. system of apprenticeships, established in 1937, is modeled on a 1911 Wisconsin law that named 200 occupations that benefited from apprenticeship programs. Some, such as plumbing and carpentry, required a mandatory apprenticeship period. The passage of the Manpower Development and Training Act in 1962 further encouraged apprenticeship programs. In Great Britain apprenticeship programs sometimes include outside schooling at company expense. The apprenticeship programs in continental Europe today differ from those in Great Britain and the United States by offering training in a wide range of fields, not just the skilled crafts.


See A. Beveridge, Apprenticeship Now (1963); N. F. Duffy, ed., Essays on Apprenticeship (1967); P. Mapp, Women in Apprenticeship (1973).


References in periodicals archive ?
What makes the Swiss apprenticeship system work is that there is a shared responsibility between the public and private sectors.
The apprenticeship programme therefore offers enormous benefits to companies such as SABIC, and SABIC reflects this by taking a leading role through Craig Hargreaves, in creating a framework that will improve the apprenticeship system to the benefit of the whole science industry.
The latter is an apprenticeship system that combines between theory and practice as well as company and vocational schools.
In this paper we use findings from the project and additional commentary and analysis on the Indian situation to show how improvements to, and expansion of, the apprenticeship system could help to address these problems.
He elaborated that in the existing apprenticeship system the training cost is completely borne by the employers, while on the other hand the emerging sectors like service and agriculture do not come into the ambit of existing law which encompasses the huge employment share in the total workforce.
He accentuated the significance of private sector, industry, employers and workers towards the reformation of existing Apprenticeship system. He elaborated that in existing apprenticeship system the training cost is completely borne by the employers on the other hand the emerging sectors i.e.
Such skills; somewhat existed in academies but, were then transferred through apprenticeship system. Arts in the academies; the first turning point, that focused on the ability of drawing in the school level while fine arts and design in the college and university levels.
Coopey, who also heads the manufacturing group in MHA, a national association of independent accountants, strongly believes that this dual strand to education, along with a dynamic apprenticeship system, should be a model for the UK.
Royal Garden Hotel executive chef Steve Munkley said: "Leo really is a credit to the hospitality team at Cardiff and Vale College and to the apprenticeship system.
And, in a second significant step, the Government has announced a new apprenticeship system.
From Germany, the report makes recommendations for the UK apprenticeship system, calling for greater employer engagement and urging the government to push for all large employers to sign an agreement to offer places, with a widening of the model to include more occupations and greater academic content.
Ian Wood, managing director of TTA, said: "There are many critics of the apprenticeship system who say that training companies are turning out young people without due regard to their long-term employability so that instead of becoming unemployed on leaving school they are merely delaying the day when they find they still cannot get a job.

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