April Uprising of 1945
April Uprising of 1945
an uprising against the German fascist occupying forces and their Italian fascist collaborators, which was the concluding stage in the national liberation war of the Italian people in 1943–45. The uprising began at the time when the Soviet Army was opening its Berlin campaign and the Anglo-American troops in Italy, having broken through the front near Ferrara (April 17), were beginning their march up the Po Valley. As a prologue to the uprising, strikes broke out in the factories of Turin on April 18. These spread to all the cities of northern Italy and soon turned into armed actions. The uprising took place under the leadership of the Committees of National Liberation and the command staffs of the partisan units, in which the Communists were the leading force. The uprising had an all-national character. Bologna rose on April 19, Modena on April 22, and Reggio nell’Emilia on April 24.
On April 25 the Committee of National Liberation of Northern Italy summoned the people to carry out a general armed uprising. From April 25 to 27 the uprising spread throughout the occupied sector of Italy. On April 26 the large German fascist garrison of Genoa surrendered to the insurgent people. On the next day the chief city of northern Italy, Milan, was liberated, and the fascist Republic of Salo ceased to exist. On April 28, after bloody combat, the partisans entered Turin. On the same day there was an uprising in Venice. As a result of the uprising all of northern Italy was liberated from the yoke of the German and Italian fascists by the patriot forces by the end of April. The uprising played an enormous role in saving the industrial potential of northern Italy from being destroyed by the retreating fascists. It laid the basis for the further consolidation of the democratic forces in the country. April 25 is observed as a national holiday in Italy.
REFERENCESLongo, L. Narod Italiiν bor’be. Moscow, 1952. (Translated from Italian.)
Battaglia, R. Istoriia ital’ianskogo dvizheniia Soprotivleniia (8 sent. 1943g.-25apr. 1945 g.). Moscow, 1954. (Translated from Italian.)
Filatov, G. S. Ital’ianskie kommunisty ν dvizhenii Soprotivleniia. Moscow, 1964.
“25 aprile 1945.” Rinascita, 1955, no. 4.
25 aprile: La resistenza in Piemonte. Turin, 1946.
G. V. GORSHKOV and G. S. FILATOV