a priori

(redirected from Apriority)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Financial, Wikipedia.
Related to Apriority: a priori

a priori

1. Logic relating to or involving deductive reasoning from a general principle to the expected facts or effects
2. Logic known to be true independently of or in advance of experience of the subject matter; requiring no evidence for its validation or support
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

A Priori

 

knowledge that precedes experience and is independent of it.

The term “a priori” was introduced by the medieval scholastic philosophers, who emphasized that certain kinds of knowledge precede experience. Later, especially after Leibniz, the independence of a priori knowledge from experience came to the fore, as well as its purely speculative, conceptual origin. According to Descartes and Leibniz, the most profound knowledge is attained apart from experience, by means of looking at the truth directly, that is, by intellectual intuition, which constitutes one of the principal “faculties of the soul.” Behind the formulation of the problem in this way, there was a correct insight that the process of cognition is not a simple photographing of reality and that man not only reflects the world but also creates it (V. I. Lenin, Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 29, p. 194). This led to searching in consciousness itself for those factors that could serve as premises for cognitive activity. Therefore, attempts to distinguish a priori knowledge have reflected a striving to distinguish the inner source of active thought. This line achieved its greatest development in Kant’s system, in which a priori knowledge was regarded as a condition of the necessity and the universality of experimental knowledge. In this system, as distinct from his predecessors, Kant maintained that a priori knowledge is not knowledge itself but rather the form through which knowledge is received; thus, it has meaning only within the bounds of experience. Kant’s concept of a priori, however, not to speak of the concepts of his predecessors, in fact rigidly dissociated the two forms of cognition, a priori and a posteriori. Hence it failed to provide a satisfactory solution to the problem of the source and form of thought. In the subsequent development of philosophy this formulation of the problem was accepted, but the concept of a priori itself was subjected to criticism. Moreover, such criticism was made in various and even contradictory directions, depending upon which school was undertaking it.

While dialectical materialism accepts the thesis concerning the active nature of cognition and develops the idea of its social nature, it has rejected the idea of a priori as a principle for explaining the nature of knowledge. As the basis for its own theory of cognition, it has posited the thesis that in the final analysis all kinds of knowledge have their origin in practical experience. According to dialectical materialism all knowledge is a reflection of objective reality; but in this process the subject does not obtain knowledge of the reality directly but rather through practical experience, that is, through an activity in which the consciousness does not simply reproduce the facts of experience but actively and creatively refines them. Because of this, any concrete knowledge (or form of thought) can arise directly not only from experience but from other knowledge, and in this sense it can show traces of a priori knowledge. In such a case its experiential and a posteriori origin is revealed only in historical perspective.

REFERENCES

Kant, I. Kritika chistogo razuma. Soch., vol. 3. Moscow, 1964.
Spirkïn, A. G. Kurs marksistskoi filosofii, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1966. Chapter 5.

V. A. KOSTELOVSKII

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

a priori

[¦ā prē¦ȯr·ē]
(mathematics)
Pertaining to deductive reasoning from assumed axioms or supposedly self-evident principles, supposedly without reference to experience.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
This apriority is based on the assumption that chemical degradation can be entirely attributed to a homogeneous and uniform ablation process.
Enhancing your home or garden appeals to you now and for some, seeking anew property becomes apriority.
After the misery of the closing stages of his Feyenoord career, Larsson was determined to succeed at Celtic with his home life apriority. Nearby stables for his wife Magdalena and a happy environment to bring up his two kids, Jordan and Janice have completed the picture of domestic bliss.
Hotel/Travel Rewards Credit Cards Consumer Card Name Rating Phone Number Marriott Rewards Visa Signature Card 5.00 888-215-3049 Visa Las Vegas Card 4.42 888-215-3049 APriority Club Rewards Platinum Visa Card 4.00 888-215-3049 Hilton HHonors Platinum Card from American Express 3.71 800-528-4800 RCI Elite Rewards MasterCard 3.50 800-932-2775 Card Name Comments Marriott Rewards Visa Signature Card Earn 3 points for every $1 charged at Marriott locations Visa Las Vegas Card Earn 1 point for every $1 in purchases.
The clearest statement of the apriority of music, its originary truth occurs in Nietzsche's discussion of the lyric poet where he claims that "music itself in its absolute sovereignty does not need the image and the concept, but merely endures them as accompaniments." Thus, language itself is found lacking, since it symbolizes phenomena, whereas music symbolizes the "primordial contradiction and primordial pain at the heart of the primal unity" (Nietzsche 55).
Braun does not discuss its epistemological status.) Kaplan offers as an explanation of the existence of such contingent yet (allegedly) a priori truths that alethic modal attributes (metaphysical necessity, possibility, contingency, etc.) are attributes of propositions, whereas apriority and aposteriority are attributes of proposition-characters (that is, of characters that, given a context of use, yield a proposition) or of sentences, not propositions.
Troeltsch's formula for such historically grounded standards entails "spontaneity, apriority, self-assuredness; without timelessness, general validity and absoluteness" (DH,166).
Similarly, in framing his account of his basic epistemic categories -- apriority and analyticity -- Frege has in mind some conception of justification for judgment (holding-true), not simply justification or grounding for an abstract proposition or thought content:
The cabinet also approved the Urban Mass Transit (Amendment) Act 2016, under which an Urban Mobility Authority (UMA) would be set up to streamline and regulate mass transport programmes in the province while the shortage of LPG in district Chitral would be addressed on apriority basis.
According to his reasoning, the apriority of our logical abilities is inconsistent with certain externalist assumptions.
Apriority claims play a vital role in Kant's ethics.