Riyadh

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Riyadh

or

Riad

(both: rēäd`), city (1997 est. pop. 3,000,000), capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia, in the Nejd, central Saudi Arabia. It is situated in an oasis, c.240 mi (390 km) inland from the Persian Gulf. Riyadh is the nation's educational, administrative, financial, and transportation center. Oil refining is the main industry. Riyadh is the focal point for desert travel and trade. Its architecture formerly represented the classic Arabic style, but in the oil boom of recent decades many buildings were torn down and replaced by large modern structures. Riyadh was long the center of the WahhabiWahhabi
or Wahabi
, reform movement in Islam, originating in Arabia; adherents of the movement usually refer to themselves as Muwahhidun [unitarians]. It was founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahab (c.
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 movement. In 1991, the city was slightly damaged by Iraqi missile attacks during the Persian Gulf WarPersian Gulf Wars,
two conflicts involving Iraq and U.S.-led coalitions in the late 20th and early 21st cent.

The First Persian Gulf War, also known as the Gulf War, Jan.–Feb.
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. By the late 1990s, Riyadh was one of the fastest-growing cities in the world. It is the seat of King Fahd Univ., Imam Mohamed Univ., and other schools.

Riyadh

 

(also al-Riyad), the capital of Saudi Arabia. Located in the central Arabian Peninsula at an elevation of approximately 600 m, Riyadh has a subtropical climate, with an average January temperature of −14°C and an average July temperature of 33°C; annual precipitation totals 53 mm. Population, 390,000 (1976). Riyadh is connected by highways with Mecca, Jidda, and al-Hu-fuf and by a railroad with Dammam. It has an international airport.

Riyadh is an important industrial center, with approximately one-fifth of Saudi Arabia’s industrial enterprises. In addition to oil-refining and cement industries, it has a food-processing industry that includes the manufacture of tomato paste. Dry batteries are also manufactured in the city. Notable for handicrafts and various cottage industries, Riyadh is a center for the marketing of fruits, primarily dates, and grains.

The earliest information about Riyadh is from the 18th century, when the city was the capital of a small emirate, the Nejd. Riyadh was captured by the Wahhabis in 1773. It was the capital of the Saudi emirate from 1821 until the second half of the 19th century and was subsequently ruled by the emirs of Shammar. In 1902 it was conquered by detachments of Ibn Saud, who made the city the capital of the Nejd. From 1927 to 1932, Riyadh was the capital of the kingdom comprising Hejaz, the Nejd, and the regions annexed by Ibn Saud. The state was renamed Saudi Arabia in 1932.

The old city is characterized by flat-roofed pisé houses. The boulevard connecting the new center of the city with the airport is lined with modern buildings, including office buildings, hotels, schools, hospitals, a radio station, a covered market, and a railroad station. Riyadh has many palaces, the largest of which is the royal palace complex al-Murabba (1944), which is surrounded by a clay wall with towers.

Educational institutions in the city include the University of Riyadh (founded 1957; 7,000 students in 1976), the Imam Muhammad ibn Saud Islamic University (founded 1950; university status, 1974; 11,200 students), the Higher Institute of Technology, and the Technical Institute. The principal libraries are the National Library (16,000 volumes), the Saudi Library (14,800 volumes and 200 manuscripts), and the library of the U niversity of Riyadh (65,000 volumes).

Riyadh

the joint capital (with Mecca) of Saudi Arabia, situated in a central oasis: the largest city in the country. Pop.: 5 514 000 (2005 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
C In May the developer launched its SR600 million Mirabilia luxury villa project to be built within the Shams Ar Riyadh complex, with the upscale residential villas to feature interiors designed by Italian designer Roberto Cavalli.
This step will further shape the development of Shams Ar Riyadh to support a thriving residential and business community.
The accreditation of the new masterplans in the three zones in Shams Ar Riyadh follows on from the development of the SABIC Residential Complex, which comprises of 600 fully equipped residential units built on a 1.8 million square meters area in Zone 2 and the mobilisation of the infrastructure work in Mirabilia, the upscale residential villas with interiors by Italian fashion house Roberto Cavalli, in Zone 4.
Mirabilia, or "Marvels" in Latin, presents a collection of high-end custom-built three- to seven-bedroom residential villas that range from 300 sq m to 1600 sq m in Shams Ar Riyadh.
Shams Ar Riyadh is a self-contained community that expresses luxury and distinction in each of its components; residential, commercial, educational, medical, recreational and religious.
Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (Sabic) had recently entered into a strategic partnership with "Shams Ar Riyadh" to create an exceptional residential ambiance with a blissful urban existence for its employees and their families.
Zone 1 of the $2.6bn (SAR10bn) Shams Ar Riyadh mixed-use development will be built over 85ha, with the masterplans for Zones 3 and 5 covering 45ha and 64ha respectively.
Dar Al Arkan has also applied for an off-plan sales licence for projects under construction at Shams Ar Riyadh, comprising residential, commercial, and mixed-use spaces, gardens, parks, and walkways.
The project's interiors will be designed by Italian fashion house Roberto Cavalli, and it be built in the developer's $2.6bn (SAR10bn) Shams Ar Riyadh development.
Located within the $2.6m (SR10bn) mixed-use Shams Ar Riyadh Development, the project will include residential, commercial, and mixed-use spaces, integrating gardens, parks, and walkways.
Shams Ar Riyadh will feature retail centres, restaurants and cafes, landscaping and walkways, children's play areas, schools, clinics, government offices, and mosques.