Baseline and Alternative Refrigerant Data ASHRAE GWP, (a) GWP, (a) Refrigerant Safety AR4
AR5 Class (c) R-22 unit R-22 (Baseline) (a) A1 1810 1760 N-20B (b) A1 988 904 DR-3 (b) A2L 148 146 ARM-20B (b) A2L 251 251 L-20A (R-444B) (b) A2L 295 295 DR-93 (b) A1 1258 1153 Propane (R-290) A3 3 3 R-410A unit R-410A (Baseline) (a) A1 2088 1924 ARM-71A (b) A2L 460 461 R-32 (a) A2L 675 677 DR-55 (b) A2L 698 676 L41-2 (R-447A) (b) A2L 583 572 HPR-2A (b) A2L 600 593 (a) Sources: IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Assessment Report AR4
(IPCC 2007), IPCC AR5 (IPCC 2013) (b) GWP values for refrigerant blends not included in IPCC reports are calculated as a weighted average using manufacturer-supplied compositions.
Ten representative coupled climate models are chosen (out of those used by the IPCC in AR4
) on the basis of spatial resolution and include a representative sample of meteorological research centers (see Table 1 for models, resolution, and references).
(2014) establece una equivalencia entre los escenarios AR5 y el AR4
(IPCC, 2007), el RCP 2.6 no presenta equivalencia en el AR4
, el RCP 4.5 es igual al escenario B1, RCP 6 igual al escenario B2 y RCP 8.5 igual al escenario A2.
Mudancas na circulacao atmosferica sobre a America do Sul para cenarios futuros de clima projetados pelos modelos globais do IPCC AR4
. Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia, v.25, p.125-145, 2010.
In the previous Fourth Assessment Report (AR4
) released in 2007 debates on emissions pathways toward limiting the increase in the global average temperature to certain levels focused on the issue from the perspectives of when the peak in global emissions would be reached and how large a reduction was required by 2020 and 2050 respectively.
The objective of this study is to review the development of earlier climate change scenarios for Estonia and to create new scenarios using the SRES emission scenarios and the GCM outputs prepared for the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report from 2007 (AR4
Global warming induced changes in temperature and rainfall are already evident in many parts of the world as well as in Pakistan (IPCC AR4
2008 Bates et al.
The refrigerant GWP was taken from the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4
) on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007).
The IPCC (2007) AR4
states that India could suffer from water stress--an annual water availability of less than 1000 cubic meters per capita--by 2025, and groundwater availability could decrease as much as 37 percent by mid-century.
Project Examples % Defective Description NASA data sets pc1 705 9.66 Flight software pc2 745 2.85 Flight software pc3 1077 12.4 Flight software pc4 1458 12.2 Flight software kc2 522 20.49 Storage management kc3 194 18.56 Storage management cm1 327 12.84 Spacecraft instrument mw1 253 10.67 A zero-gravity experiment SOFTLAB data sets ar3 63 12.7 Embedded controller ar4
107 18.69 Embedded controller ar5 36 22.22 Embedded controller ar6 101 16.0 Embedded controller TABLE 3: Software metrics.