In other words, operands (whether they are numeric words or Arabic digits) are converted into a single abstract numerical representation before the calculation processes are triggered.
But, what is important in the context of this article is that different studies have shown that PSE is larger when operands are presented as number words than when presented in Arabic digits format (e.g., Campbell, 1994; Campbell & Alberts, 2009; Campbell & Clark, 1992; Campbell & Fugelsang, 2001; Campbell & Penner-Wilger, 2006; Jackson & Coney, 2007a; Noel, Fias, & Brysbaert, 1997).
In other words, we aim at exploring whether format effects also occur after the potential visual familiarity of Arabic digits format is removed.
In the test set B, The training set contained 10 utterances of the Arabic digits
each from 60 speakers (31 male and 29 female) comprising a total of 6000 utterances, and the test set contained isolated digits from 30 other speakers (15 male and 15 female) for a total of 3000 utterances.
The Arabic digits and Al-Fateha covered all the Arabic letters except three: [phrase omitted].
All the text, including three vowels with a repetition, Arabic digits, Al-Fateha, and common words, was recorded and stored in two different audio formats, wav and nsp.
Recorded samples were divided into the following 22 segments: six segments for vowels (three vowels plus their repetition), 11 segments for Arabic digits (zero to ten), two segments for Al-Fateha (divided in this manner so that the first part may be used to train the system and the second part to test the system), and three segments for the common words.
Unlike previous studies, a battery of experimental tasks, where each task designed in symbolic format (Arabic digits comparison, physical size of digits comparison, symbolic Stroop tasks) is contrasted with a equivalent one designed in a non-symbolic format (collections comparison, physical size of geometric shapes comparison, non-symbolic Stroop -the latter has hardly ever been included in previous designs-see Iuculano et al., 2008) was used in this study.
Arabic Number Comparison: Two Arabic digits from 1 to 9 (Arial, 48-point font) were presented on the computer screen and children were asked to select the largest digit in numerical size.
Physical Size Comparison: Children were presented with two identical Arabic digits (on a white screen) and were asked to select the largest digit in physical size (e.g., 2-2, Arial, 65 pt or 72 pt).
Arabic digits or number words are ways of perceiving or expressing a given quantity, but the central processes--such as calculating, or deciding which of two numbers is the largest--take place in an amodal semantic representation that acts as a bottleneck between input and output stages.
Thus, for instance, if a multiplication such as 3 x 4 is presented as Arabic digits, it has to be transcoded into a verbal format before the result can be retrieved.