Outside kings, among them assumedly both Aramaean
tribal kings and sedentary Luwian states began making demands on the weakened state of Sama'al.
Lasting hegemonic rule in the region was only made possible by massive cultural shifts: first Assyria broke the resistance of the fractious Aramaeans
to imperial rule, then it virtually annihilated the Elamites in a military campaign during Assyria's final decline.
Middle Assyrian texts until the final subjugation of the Aramaean
states in the seventh century.
This Ahab had done recently in Aramaean
Wars I and II, and he would soon do so again in Aramaean
War III, but it is not known whether he also took the field in person at Qarqara.
The narrative turns on foreign conquests recorded in biblical and Assyrian texts, the latter those of the probable assailants, but without physical remains confirming or bolstering either Aramaeans
or Assyrians as the perpetrators.
Part II presents the evidence for the history of the Neo-Hittite kingdoms (in detail) and the Aramaean
and other Iron Age Near Eastern states (in overview) and is intended as a reference guide for part III.
The volumes of Donner and Rollig on Canaanite and Aramaic inscriptions include lists of Canaanite and Aramaean
names (1964: 45-52, 53-56), and Sivan's book includes an investigation of West Semitic names in Bronze Age sources from Canaan and Syria (1984).
On the So-Called Aramaean
"Siege Trench" in Tell es-Safi.
These include Wicke's analysis of the "roundcheeked and ringletted" ivories, Gubel's work on Phoenician and Aramaean
bridle-harness decoration, and Rehm's study of the style of furniture shown in Neo-Assyrian palace reliefs.
The foundation of the Aramaean
settlement at Syene is more difficult to date, but based on information especially from the Papyrus Amherst 63 (the unique Aramaic text in Demotic script) Porten finds their origins to have been Arash/Rash (a land between Babylonia and Elam), as well as southern Syria (Bit Agusi and Hamath), with a migration to Samaria in the days of Assurbanipal before they came to Egypt.
19:35), creates the illusion of a huge army of chariots against the Aramaeans
Starting from the third millennium BC, Arab tribes of the Arabian Peninsula: Acadians, the Amorites, Aramaeans
, the Nabataeans, Elsafa n and Ghassanids came and settled in Gharia and other areas.