As the Aramaeans
began to migrate in force and even settle in the territories of well-established states such as Sama'al, they continued to be a force of disruption, especially as they demanded more and more control of the regions in which they lived.
The successive waves of migration were by Akkadians (5,000 years ago), Amorites (4,000 years ago), Aramaeans
(about 3,000 years ago), and Arabs (in the seventh century).
Lasting hegemonic rule in the region was only made possible by massive cultural shifts: first Assyria broke the resistance of the fractious Aramaeans
to imperial rule, then it virtually annihilated the Elamites in a military campaign during Assyria's final decline.
The substantial number of Persians and persianized Aramaeans
who convened to Islam had, however, varied economic backgrounds.
center closest to the Hebrew-speaking area is Damascus, which is first mentioned in Assyrian sources in the mid ninth century.
But King Joram returned to Jezreel to be healed of his wounds that the Aramaeans
had given him when he fought with Hazael, the King of Aram (9:14; cf.
Thus, while this is hardly a happy time for anyone who cares about Syria--past, present, and future--the volume under review is of importance, since it is an excellent and up-to-date overview and summary of the most recent study of the Aramaeans
of Iron Age Syria, including studies by some of the leading researchers in this field, among them some of the excavators themselves.
The narrative turns on foreign conquests recorded in biblical and Assyrian texts, the latter those of the probable assailants, but without physical remains confirming or bolstering either Aramaeans
or Assyrians as the perpetrators.
Morrow, "The Sefire Treaty Stipulations and the Meso-potamian Treaty Tradition," in The World of the Aramaeans
III: Studies in Language and Literature in Honour of Paul-Eugene Dion, ed.
(37.) I wonder if he did not intend the sun god Malakbel, venerated in the caravan city of Palmyra, whose pantheon incorporated Babylonian and Syro-Palestinian elements, and whose population consisted of Amoriles, Aramaeans
, and Arabs.
A specially interesting case is Aram' < *' aram (like Arabic' af'al), which the author sees as internal plural of ri'm 'wild bull,' "the totem of Aramaeans
in The Aramaeans
: Their Ancient History, Culture, Religion (Leuven: Peeters.