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a writing system which describes only consonant sounds. Aramaic script, which is based on Phoenician script, arose at the beginning of the first millennium B.C. among Semitic tribes in the northwest, known as Aramaeans. Its oldest literary remains date from the ninth and eighth centuries B.C. Aramaic script was one of the two writing systems (with Persian cuneiform) used in Achaemenian Iran. Aramaic script can be traced back to Syriac Square Hebrew, Arabic, Pahlavi, Ugaritic, Mongolian, and other scripts.