Targum

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Targum

(tär`gəm) [Aramaic,=translation], Aramaic paraphrase of the Hebrew Bible. When Aramaic replaced the Hebrew tongue among the Jews of Palestine and Babylon, interpreters were called to translate and explain the scriptural passages that were read aloud during synagogue services. The oral Aramaic paraphrases were, in the course of time, put down in writing under the name Targum. One of the best-known Targums extant is the Targum Onkelos (see OnkelosOnkelos
, 2d cent. A.D., translator of the Hebrew Bible into Aramaic, his work later being given the title Targum Onkelos (see Targum). A proselyte, he gained the respect of the leading Hebrew scholars of his day.
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). The Targum is printed in the margin of corresponding parts of the Bible. A complete manuscript of a Palestinian Targum, the first of its kind, was found in 1956.
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References in periodicals archive ?
This is followed by a portion of Mid-rash ha-Hefez, then by the Aramaic Targum Sheni to the Book of Esther, where our tale of the Jewish King Solomon and the non-Jewish queen of Sheba is interpolated into the story of a very different kind of queen, the Jewish Esther and the non-Jewish King Ahasuerus.
This is consistent with the Samaritan Aramaic Targum: ryqnyh.
The skin for these garments is variously understood as coming from the skin shed by the sly serpent who seduced Eve (Aramaic Targum of Yonatan Ben Uziel), or from the Leviathan (4) that God slaughtered, salted, and left for the righteous in the World to Come (Hizkuni).
For the full list, with references in the rest of the Tanakh and the Aramaic Targum, see: http://home.earthlink.net/~bylspress/Table_for_shofar.pdf.
Actually, the oldest Aramaic targum discovered, but only in fragments, was found in Qumran, which means that it must be dated prior to the destruction of the Qumran community in 68 CE.