didn't invent alphabetic script--this honour goes to the Phoenicians of the Lebanese coast--but they did popularise it.
Lawson Younger Jr., who has now (2016) published a full-length book on the Arameans
, is very cautious in his excellent essay "Aram and the Arameans
" to avoid making a connection between the newly found inscription of Taita at Aleppo and Toi, ally of David in the Bible.
Many Israelis would be surprised to learn of an Aramean
people living here, but their language -- the Semitic language used in ancient times in the Land of Israel and its environs -- is known to every Hebrew speaker, since many Aramaic words made their way into contemporary Hebrew.
The Bible's first confession of faith begins with a story of pilgrimage and migration: "A wandering Aramean
was my ancestor; he went down into Egypt and lived there as an alien" (Deut.
Did I not bring Israel up from the land of Egypt, and the Philistines from Caphtor and the Arameans
from Kir?" (21) This verse may serve to challenge the idea that Christians alone are the recipients of God's salvation.
Israelites, Edomites, Moabites, Amonites and Arameans
colonise 960-922 BC Reign of Solomon 722 BC Assyrians destroy Israel 612 BC Babylonians capture Nineveh, Assyrians capital 597-587 BC Jerusalem, Palestine and Jordan fall to Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar c300 BC Nabataeans establish kingdom in Petra and dominate the region for almost 400 years 333 BC Alexander the Great conquers Syria, Palestine and Egypt 323 BC Death of Alexander.
Joseph Patrich (1990) has argued that the Nabateans were in fact a state established when Arab traders from Himyaritic regions of southern and central Arabia "imposed their rule on the farmers of Transjordan," the "Ammonites, Moabites, Edomites, Arameans
, and even Israelites -- that is, the peasants of Transjordan" (p.38).
Aram is what is now southern Syria, and Arameans
were among Israel's enemies.
The next verse (v.3) is in direct speech, and although it has been interpreted as the speech of the foreign kings, it makes more sense as Israel's defiant speech directed at the nations: "Let us break their chains apart, and let us hurl their fetters away from us." It was the nations, especially Assyria and the Arameans
, who posed a threat to Israel during Isaiah's lifetime.
From the apparent account, and according to the current understanding of this event, al-Mahdi's inquisition was directed against former Manichaean Muslims and their ideas which were popularized through the service of Persians and persianized Arameans
. Since Manichaeans were not given Dhimmi status like other established religious groups,(6) their conversion to Islam had presumably been without much conviction and mainly in order to keep their employment in the Abbasid administration.(7) Nonetheless, they quickly came to constitute a powerful pressure group at the Abbasid court.(8)
These columns are the remains of an ancient temple built by the Arameans
to worship Hadad-Romman , the god of fertility, thunderstorms and rain at the beginning of the first millennium BC, Assistant director of exploration and documentation at the General Directorate of Antiquities and Museums Hammam Saad said.
Such scholars point to contacts between Arameans
and speakers of other languages in the first millennium BCE, as a result of an assumed regional state of multilingualism.