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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(from Mongolian), livestock-breeding workers in the Mongolian People’s Republic and areas with settlements of Mongols in the Chinese People’s Republic; in a broader sense, the workers in general, the people. In feudal Mongolia the arats were a class of livestock-breeding peasant serfs, attached to the land (pastures), which was owned by feudal lords or sovereign princes who exploited their labor. On the eve of the 1921 revolution the arats, who constituted 92.2 percent of the population, owned only 50.5 percent of the total livestock in the country. The class struggle of the arats against the oppressors assumed all kinds of forms, beginning with an unwarranted nomadism and ending with massive uprisings. The arats were the prime driving force in the Mongolian people’s revolution of 1921. In the Mongolian People’s Republic the arat mode of life underwent a radical change. The arats are a free class, building socialism with the newly formed working class and the working intelligentsia of the Mongolian People’s Republic. The modern arats are no longer small producers but have been incorporated into agricultural cooperatives. The arats’ transition to a settled way of life has been accomplished. According to information available at the end of 1966, arat membership in the agricultural unions constituted 47 percent of the total population of the Mongolian People’s Republic.

In the Chinese People’s Republic the arats form an integral part of the toiling masses in the autonomous regions of Inner Mongolia, Sinkiang, and parts of Tsinghai Province.

The peasants in the Tuva ASSR are also called arats.


Vladimirtsov, B. Ia. Obshchestvennyi stroi mongolov. Leningrad, 1934.
Natsokdorzhi, Sh. lz istorii aratskogo dvizheniia vo Vneshnei Mongola. Moscow, 1958.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Zheng Lizhong, convener of the ECC on the mainland and executive vice president of ARATS, and Jiang Yaoping, the mainland's chief negotiator for the ECC, will lead a mainland delegation to attend the ECC meeting.
(113) Beijing's Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Strait (ARATS) and Taipei's Strait Exchange Foundation (SEF) met semi-officially in Hong Kong, October 28- 30, 1992.
SEF and ARATS are intermediary organizations founded in 1990 to handle cross-strait affairs in the absence of formal relations.
SEF Vice-Chairman Kao Koong-lian said that negotiators reached the consensus at a preparatory consultation held in Taipei between the ARATS and SEF on Thursday morning to fix the details for the coming talks.
Chiang and Chen Yunlin, chairman of ARATS, takes place today (Aug.
Chen will engage in negotiations -- mostly a formality at this point -- with his Taiwanese counterpart Chiang Pin-kung, who directs Taipei's Straits Exchange Foundation, ARATS' Taiwanese counterpart agency in the absence of official bilateral relations.
Total flights between the mainland and Taiwan will grow from 108 chartered per week to 270, including regular ones, according to an agreement signed between Chen Yunlin, the president of the mainland's Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits (ARATS), and Chiang Pin-kung, chairman of Taiwan's Straits Exchange Foundation (SEF).
At present, Taiwanese businessmen redress investment-related disputes mainly via the channels of Straits Exchange Foundation (SEF) and Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits (ARATS).
The protests come a day before the talks here between China's Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits, or ARATS, and Taiwan's Straits Exchange Foundation, or SEF.
"The talks between the mainland's Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits (ARATS) and the Taiwan-based Straits Exchange Foundation (SEF) will focus on joint efforts to crack down on crime, regular cross-Straits flights, financial cooperation and judiciary assistance," State Council Taiwan Affairs Office spokesman Li Weiyi said at a press conference.
Chiang, chairman of Taiwan's Straits Exchange Foundation (SEF), and his Chinese counterpart, Chen Yunlin, president of the Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits (ARATS).
Neither SEF nor ARATS elaborated on the date of the talks, which will focus on hammering out a bilateral partial free trade pact and other trade and economic exchange issues.