monkey-puzzle tree

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monkey-puzzle tree,

evergreen tree (Araucaria araucana) native to Chile and widely cultivated elsewhere as an ornamental. The symmetrical branches have an unusual angularity and are completely covered by the stiff, overlapping leaves. The monkey-puzzle tree and related species—e.g., the Norfolk Island pine (A. excelsa) and the bunya-bunya, bunya, or bunya pine (A. bidwillii)—are all good timber trees. The edible seeds of the bunya-bunya are an important traditional food for Australia's aborigines. Species of Araucaria form the dominant vegetation of the coniferous forests of Chile and S Brazil. The related kauri pine (Agathis australis) of New Zealand is one of the largest commercial trees in the world, sometimes reaching 200 ft (61 m) in height. It yields good timber and the valuable kauri copal (often called Kauri gum), which was collected in fossil or semifossil form. Other species of Agathis produce similar copals. The genera Agathis and Araucaria together comprise the araucaria family. Although now restricted to the temperate regions of South America and of Australia and the neighboring Pacific islands, fossils—e.g., in the Petrified Forest of Arizona—indicate that the group was once abundant in the Northern Hemisphere. The monkey-puzzle tree and related species are classified in the division PinophytaPinophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called gymnosperms. The gymnosperms, a group that includes the pine, have stems, roots and leaves, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
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, class Pinopsida, order Coniferales, family Araucariaceae.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Produccion de semillas de Araucaria araucana (Molina K.
Efectos de la produccion de semillas y la heterogeneidad vegetal sobre la supervivencia de semillas y el patron espacio-temporal de establecimiento de plantulas en Araucaria araucana. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 82:319-335.
Factors controlling seed predation by rodents and non-native Sus scrofa in Araucaria araucana forests: Potential effects on seedling establishment.
Aagesen DL (1998) Indigenous resource rights and conservation of the monkey-puzzle tree (Araucaria araucana, Araucariaceae): a case study from southern Chile.
Burns B (1993) Fire-induced dynamics of Araucaria araucana Nothofagus antarctica forest in the Southern Andes.
Conservacion, manejo y uso sustentable de los recursos geneticos de la Araucaria araucana en Argentina, Segundo informe de avance, Proyecto Pehuen, Argentina,
Araucaria araucana dominates xerophytic Andean forests of northwestern Patagonia and adjacent Chile in pure stands and mixed with Nothofagus species (Roig, 1998), but exploitation in the 20th century resulted in a sharp decline in the health and distribution of these forests (Aagesen, 1998).
These forests all consisted of mixtures of Araucaria araucana, Nothofagus pumilio and N.