ancient man-made objects, structures, or ancient burials that have been preserved on the earth’s surface, underground, or underwater and serve as the objects of archaeological study. Archaeological remains are the material historical sources that make it possible to reconstruct the past history of human society, including mankind’s prehistory. Basic archaeological remains include work tools, weapons, domestic utensils, clothing, and ornaments; settlements including campsites, fortified and unfortified settlements, and separate dwellings; ancient fortifications; the remains of ancient hydraulic structures; ancient agricultural fields; roads; mining pits and workshops; ancient burial grounds and various burial and religious structures (stelae, stone figurines, stone fish monoliths (vishaps), menhirs, cromlechs, dolmens, sanctuaries); drawings and inscriptions carved into individual stones and cliffs; and architectural monuments. Archaeological remains also include ancient ships and their cargoes that sank in rivers and seas and settlements that came to be underwater as a result of shifts in the earth’s crust.
L. A. GOLUBEVA