Excavation

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excavation

[‚ek·skə′vā·shən]
(archeology)
Process of removing earth, stone, or other materials covering the remains of ancient civilizations.
(civil engineering)
The process of digging a hollow in the earth.
An uncovered cavity in the ground.

Excavation

The removal of earth from its natural position; the cavity that results from the removal of earth.

Excavation

 

the process of removing rock or earth from a solid, broken, or unconsolidated layer by means of an excavator, bulldozer, scraper, or similar machine. In earthwork practice, the term “excavation” may also include the entire work cycle, that is, digging, transportation, and dumping of the earth with excavators.

Soft, loose, and dense rock is usually excavated directly from the solid formation by successive removal of layers of ground; rock that has been broken up beforehand is excavated from piles or loosened layers. Three types of excavation are distinguished according to the mutual position of the face and the horizon on which the machine is working: the face may be above or below the machine horizon, or a combination of the two arrangements may be used. Because digging is the principal component of the process of excavation, it is conventional to describe the process with respect to the specific resistance to digging. This quantity is affected by the physicomechanical properties of the rock or earth, the type of excavating machine used, the design and dimensions of the working member, and the procedure followed in working the face.

REFERENCES

Dombrovskii, N. G. Ekskavatory. Moscow, 1969.
Rzhevskii, V. V. Protsessy otkrytykh gornykh rabot, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1974.
Beliakov, Iu. I., and V. M. Vladimirov. Sovershenstvovanie ekskavatornykh rabot na kar’erakh. Moscow, 1974.

IU. D. BUIANOV

excavation

excavation
1. The removal of earth from its natural position.
2. The cavity resulting from the removal of earth.
References in periodicals archive ?
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The archaeological excavations of the site, which dates back to about 100,000 years ago, were made by archeologists from INP, the universities of Oxford and London (UK) and the university of Sousse.
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More than 20 years after archaeological excavations first began at the Rochester Hills Museum at Van Hoosen Farm, the museum has released a report detailing some of the 150,000 artifacts recovered at the historic site.
Head of Syrian archaeological mission working at the site, Suleiman Elias, said that the archaeological excavations at Tell Sha'ir began in 2006, noting that the study of pottery stone, discovered in the ancient platforms, had proved the succession of several civilizations in the site started in the 6th millennium BC by Hassouna civilization, then Uruk, Ninawa, Mitanni reaching to the Byzantine and Arab Islamic civilizations.
according to the results of historical knowledge and archaeological excavations. The city is known as one of the oldest settlements in the Mediterranean basin.
This slim monograph details the archaeological excavations at North Lane, in Canterbury, England during 1993 and 1996.
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Archaeological excavations at a prison near Megiddo, Israel, have uncovered remains of what may have been one of the region's oldest Christian churches.

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