Makarios III

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Makarios III

(mäkä`rēôs), 1913–77, Orthodox Eastern archbishop and Cypriot statesman, first president of Cyprus (1960–77). Born Michael Mouskos, Makarios was elected bishop of Kition in 1948 and archbishop of Cyprus in 1950. Leader of the Greek Cypriots in the movement for enosis (union with Greece), he was exiled by the British in 1956 on charges of encouraging terrorism. He was released in 1957. In 1958 he began to press for Cypriot independence from Great Britain rather than union with Greece. When agreement was reached on the independence of Cyprus, he was elected president. Makarios pursued a neutralist policy, favoring a peaceful solution between the island's Greek and Turkish communities. After his term of office had expired in 1965 and had been extended to 1968, Makarios was reelected in 1968 and 1973. In 1972 he came under increasing pressure from the Greek government to allow for greater Greek influence in Cypriot affairs; the Cypriot Orthodox Church pressured him to resign if he failed to do so. Gen. George Grivas, leader of the enosis movement, launched a terrorist campaign aimed at overthrowing Makarios. This effort finally succeeded (July, 1974), when a Greek-sponsored coup deposed Makarios. After several months of exile he returned to Cyprus in Dec., 1974, and resumed the presidency.

Bibliography

See biography by P. N. Vanezis (1971).

Makarios III

 

(secular name, Michael Christendous Mouskos). Born Aug. 13, 1913, in Panayia, near the city of Paphos. Church and state leader of Cyprus.

Makarios graduated from departments of theology at the University of Athens (1943) and Boston University (1948). During 1948-50 he served as bishop of Kition. From October 1950 he was archbishop, head of the autocephalous Orthodox Church, and ethnarch (leader) of the Greek community. Makarios took an active part in the struggle against British domination and for the independence of Cyprus; in 1956 and 1957 he was in exile on the Seychelles Islands. From 1957 to 1959 he lived in Athens, since the British authorities did not permit him to return to Cyprus. In February 1959, as the representative of the Greek community, he signed the agreements worked out by Great Britain, Greece, and Turkey in Zurich and London; these agreements formed the basis of the constitution of Cyprus. Since Dec. 13, 1959, Makarios III has been president of the Republic of Cyprus.

Makarios III

original name Mikhail Christodoulou Mouskos. 1913--77, Cypriot archbishop, patriarch, and statesman; first president of the republic of Cyprus (1960--74; 1974--77)
References in periodicals archive ?
Archbishop Makarios at London Airport 1973: In a referendum boycotted by most Catholics, Northern Ireland voted in favour of staying in the UK by a majority of 90-1.
The design plans indicate that the bridge will start on Lumumba Road near Jela Baridi Prison in Majengo.It will go across the railway station and Moi Avenue along Archbishop Makarios Road, then over the Likoni Channel at Mwenza Creek and then join the Southern By-pass at Ziwani through the Mtongwe road.
The four-storey detached Georgian home was lived in by the Archbishop Makarios, the exiled first president of an independent Cyprus, for just five months in 1974.
The Turkish invasion of 1974, albeit illegal and deplorable, came solely in response to the coup in Cyprus by Nico Sampson (ex EOKA, the Greek Cypriot terrorist group) and backed by the military regime in Greece; this overturned the legitimate government of Cyprus led by Archbishop Makarios.
There was Archbishop Makarios and many more we now accept as friends.
[Identification of Archbishop Makarios [in the later documents] and the code names of some of the leading terrorists.]
Despite what Richard Cavendish says on Archbishop Makarios (March 9006), the British government merely made proposals for rather dubious kinds of self-government which were not accepted by the Greek Cypriots.
As you will know, it was the disastrous attempt by this government to murder the Cypriot leader Archbishop Makarios and install a known Eoka terrorist, Nikos Samson, in his place to unite Cyprus with Greece that led to the Turkish invasion.
Keep calm, said the suits from the Foreign Office, we have exile plans, unused since Napoleon was sent to Elba or Cypriot leader Archbishop Makarios was deported to the Seychelles.
As its descriptive explanatory subtitle explains, Mirasmeni Lefkosia (Divided Lefkosia [Nicosia, internationally]) is "a composite work for the stage with a choral accompaniment." Its flowing and melodic verse, free or conventional, and passages of lyrical prose are recited by two Narrators, a Chorus, and a set of Voices (i.e., Time, Caterina Cornaro, Cyprian the Presbyter, Maria of the Senate, Archbishop Cyprian, General Grivas, and Archbishop Makarios III).
Sirens sounded around the island at 8.20 on Monday morning to mark 45 years since the coup by the Greek military junta then ruling Greece, that toppled Cyprus President Archbishop Makarios III, subsequently leading to the invasion.
He said 'a lot of displacement is expected' at the site of an interjection near Archbishop Makarios Road.