Makarios III

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Makarios III

(mäkä`rēôs), 1913–77, Orthodox Eastern archbishop and Cypriot statesman, first president of Cyprus (1960–77). Born Michael Mouskos, Makarios was elected bishop of Kition in 1948 and archbishop of Cyprus in 1950. Leader of the Greek Cypriots in the movement for enosis (union with Greece), he was exiled by the British in 1956 on charges of encouraging terrorism. He was released in 1957. In 1958 he began to press for Cypriot independence from Great Britain rather than union with Greece. When agreement was reached on the independence of Cyprus, he was elected president. Makarios pursued a neutralist policy, favoring a peaceful solution between the island's Greek and Turkish communities. After his term of office had expired in 1965 and had been extended to 1968, Makarios was reelected in 1968 and 1973. In 1972 he came under increasing pressure from the Greek government to allow for greater Greek influence in Cypriot affairs; the Cypriot Orthodox Church pressured him to resign if he failed to do so. Gen. George Grivas, leader of the enosis movement, launched a terrorist campaign aimed at overthrowing Makarios. This effort finally succeeded (July, 1974), when a Greek-sponsored coup deposed Makarios. After several months of exile he returned to Cyprus in Dec., 1974, and resumed the presidency.

Bibliography

See biography by P. N. Vanezis (1971).

Makarios III

 

(secular name, Michael Christendous Mouskos). Born Aug. 13, 1913, in Panayia, near the city of Paphos. Church and state leader of Cyprus.

Makarios graduated from departments of theology at the University of Athens (1943) and Boston University (1948). During 1948-50 he served as bishop of Kition. From October 1950 he was archbishop, head of the autocephalous Orthodox Church, and ethnarch (leader) of the Greek community. Makarios took an active part in the struggle against British domination and for the independence of Cyprus; in 1956 and 1957 he was in exile on the Seychelles Islands. From 1957 to 1959 he lived in Athens, since the British authorities did not permit him to return to Cyprus. In February 1959, as the representative of the Greek community, he signed the agreements worked out by Great Britain, Greece, and Turkey in Zurich and London; these agreements formed the basis of the constitution of Cyprus. Since Dec. 13, 1959, Makarios III has been president of the Republic of Cyprus.

Makarios III

original name Mikhail Christodoulou Mouskos. 1913--77, Cypriot archbishop, patriarch, and statesman; first president of the republic of Cyprus (1960--74; 1974--77)
References in periodicals archive ?
The four-storey detached Georgian home was lived in by the Archbishop Makarios, the exiled first president of an independent Cyprus, for just five months in 1974.
There was Archbishop Makarios and many more we now accept as friends.
Finally, the appendices are a good example how British propaganda skilfully contextualised the above documents with the aim of not only underlining the criminal character of EOKA (24) but to link Archbishop Makarios with its activities.
As you will know, it was the disastrous attempt by this government to murder the Cypriot leader Archbishop Makarios and install a known Eoka terrorist, Nikos Samson, in his place to unite Cyprus with Greece that led to the Turkish invasion.
1956) Cyprus: Riots break out in protest at the deportation of Archbishop Makarios.
Keep calm, said the suits from the Foreign Office, we have exile plans, unused since Napoleon was sent to Elba or Cypriot leader Archbishop Makarios was deported to the Seychelles.
Time, Caterina Cornaro, Cyprian the Presbyter, Maria of the Senate, Archbishop Cyprian, General Grivas, and Archbishop Makarios III).
Most commentators are inclined to think back to the events of July 1974, when an invasion by Turkish troops followed an Athens-sponsored coup that ousted, and almost killed, Archbishop Makarios.
Some 55 years ago Archbishop Makarios -- another monk -- took the political post of president of the republic, which had been established with his signature -- with the sole purpose of dissolving it, as he admitted in a letter sent in 1964 to the then prime minister of Greece George Papandreou.
EVENTS 1956: Britain ordered the deportation of the Greek Cypriot leader, Archbishop Makarios, in the hope of restoring law and order to the crown colony.
1959: Archbishop Makarios voted the first president of the future republic of Cyprus.
1956: Riots erupt in Cyprus over Archbishop Rioting and demonstrations have broken out in the crown colony of Cyprus after yesterday's deportation by the British authorities of the head of the island's Greek Orthodox Church, Archbishop Makarios.