Makarios III

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Makarios III

(mäkä`rēôs), 1913–77, Orthodox Eastern archbishop and Cypriot statesman, first president of Cyprus (1960–77). Born Michael Mouskos, Makarios was elected bishop of Kition in 1948 and archbishop of Cyprus in 1950. Leader of the Greek Cypriots in the movement for enosis (union with Greece), he was exiled by the British in 1956 on charges of encouraging terrorism. He was released in 1957. In 1958 he began to press for Cypriot independence from Great Britain rather than union with Greece. When agreement was reached on the independence of Cyprus, he was elected president. Makarios pursued a neutralist policy, favoring a peaceful solution between the island's Greek and Turkish communities. After his term of office had expired in 1965 and had been extended to 1968, Makarios was reelected in 1968 and 1973. In 1972 he came under increasing pressure from the Greek government to allow for greater Greek influence in Cypriot affairs; the Cypriot Orthodox Church pressured him to resign if he failed to do so. Gen. George Grivas, leader of the enosis movement, launched a terrorist campaign aimed at overthrowing Makarios. This effort finally succeeded (July, 1974), when a Greek-sponsored coup deposed Makarios. After several months of exile he returned to Cyprus in Dec., 1974, and resumed the presidency.

Bibliography

See biography by P. N. Vanezis (1971).

Makarios III

 

(secular name, Michael Christendous Mouskos). Born Aug. 13, 1913, in Panayia, near the city of Paphos. Church and state leader of Cyprus.

Makarios graduated from departments of theology at the University of Athens (1943) and Boston University (1948). During 1948-50 he served as bishop of Kition. From October 1950 he was archbishop, head of the autocephalous Orthodox Church, and ethnarch (leader) of the Greek community. Makarios took an active part in the struggle against British domination and for the independence of Cyprus; in 1956 and 1957 he was in exile on the Seychelles Islands. From 1957 to 1959 he lived in Athens, since the British authorities did not permit him to return to Cyprus. In February 1959, as the representative of the Greek community, he signed the agreements worked out by Great Britain, Greece, and Turkey in Zurich and London; these agreements formed the basis of the constitution of Cyprus. Since Dec. 13, 1959, Makarios III has been president of the Republic of Cyprus.

Makarios III

original name Mikhail Christodoulou Mouskos. 1913--77, Cypriot archbishop, patriarch, and statesman; first president of the republic of Cyprus (1960--74; 1974--77)
References in periodicals archive ?
Archbishop Makarios III of the Cypriot Orthodox Church became president while Dr.
The Pontiff will lay a wreath at the statue of Archbishop Makarios III.
Hourly-paid cleaners at Nicosia's Archbishop Makarios III hospital will stage a 12-hour strike on Thursday, from 6.
Seychelles and Cyprus officially established diplomatic relations in 1976, but this only formalised a friendship born from historical ties, following the exile of Archbishop Makarios III to Seychelles, who became first President of the Republic of Cyprus, in the late 1950s.
Later on he will go to the Presidential Palace, where he will lay a wreath to the statue of Archbishop Makarios III, the first President of the Republic of Cyprus and then receive the Greek Minister of Defence.
The Department of Antiquities, Ministry of Communications and Works announces that a ceremony took place today, at the Byzantine Museum of the Archbishop Makarios III Foundation, to mark the repatriation of the 173 ecclesiastical cultural treasures which were stolen from the occupied areas of the Republic of Cyprus.
Turkish troops invaded Cyprus on July 20, 1974, five days after the legal government of the late Archbishop Makarios III was toppled by a military coup, engineered by the military junta then ruling Greece.
Contract award: high school archbishop makarios iii dasoupoli, nicosia - construction, replace (t.
His work can be seen in the Byzantine Museum of the Archbishop Makarios III, in public spaces, plazas and private collections.
He also laid a wreath at the Presidential Palace at the statue of Archbishop Makarios III, the first President of the Republic of Cyprus.
The exhibition, held at the Archbishop Makarios III foundation in Nicosia, will be open to the public until May 18.
All proceeds from the sale of the teddies will be given to Miracle Babies, Symeonides said, "towards the creation of a new, state-of-the-art intensive care unit for newborn and premature infants at the Archbishop Makarios III Hospital in Nicosia.