The collaboration of Church and State granted more authority to the bishops' or to the archpriests' initiatives, in their efforts to persuade the population of the adequacy of the measures the Church had taken for their welfare and well-being (28).
Thus, on 24 March 1815, Nicolae Stoica, the Archpriest of Mehadia, forwarded to the parishioners the exhortations of Pavel Avacumovici, the Orthodox Bishop of Arad, who aimed to motivate the inhabitants to cultivate potatoes, demanding the priests themselves to serve as models in this regard: "since the vast majority of the Romanians have lacked, of late, wheat and maize, they are bound to endure great famine ...
A rereading of the Disputacion from the perspective of translation history and theory, as I will argue, not only allows us to appreciate how the Archpriest translates sign theory into fiction, but also how the Libro fashions the role of the clerical narrator and poet as a transmitter of Latin auctoritas in the Castilian romance vernacular.
The Disputacion itself is the first of many exempla, fabliaux, and other stories romanced by the Archpriest, who drew upon Aesop, Ovid, Augustine, Latin comedies, goliardic poetry, liturgy, and just about anything else to hand that he could include in his sprawling compendium of narrative and lyric poetry.
As the Archpriest's promise of poetic instruction would suggest, the Libro displays several forms of versification.
While the thirteenth-century Berceo leads his audience unambiguously from verba to res, the fourteenth-century Archpriest continually leaves readers hanging in the poetic space between words and their meanings, unsure whether the res is actually more valuable and morally upright than the verba.
The Disputacion follows directly upon The Archpriest's translation and gloss of Cato's couplet, "Interpone tuis interdum gaudia curis / Ut possis animo quemuis sufferre laborem": "que omne a sus coidados que tiene en coracon / entreponga plazeres e alegre la rrazon, / que la mucha tristeza mucho pecado pon" (one should temper a heart filled by cares with pleasures, and gladden the spirit, for great sadness leads to great sin) (st.
(28) Above and beyond the translation activities depicted in the exemplum, the Archpriest, who parodies as he glosses, displays his own work of translation, gloss, and poetic invention.
(20) Archpriest Nikolai Donenko, Nasledniki tsarstva, 2 vols.
See the interesting report on this subject by a leading ecclesiastical historian: Archpriest Georgii Mitrofanov, "Kanonizatsiia novomuchenikov i ispovednikov rossiiskikh v Russ koi Pravoslavnoi Tserkvi," 7 November 2010 (www.patriarchia.ru/db/text/1295606.html).
Yet these picaresque elements of satire, parody, caricature, and the like were not unique to picaresque novels; they also existed in earlier literature--such as Juan Ruiz, the Archpriest of Hita's El libro de buen amor and Fernando de Rojas' La Celestina--which influenced the development of the picaresque novel.
As town crier, he has a steady, assured income, even if his wife is a hand-me-down mistress of the archpriest of Salvador.