arginine

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arginine

(är`jənĭn), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acidsamino acid
, any one of a class of simple organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and in certain cases sulfur. These compounds are the building blocks of proteins.
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 commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer participates in the biosynthesis of proteins. Its basic side chain adds a positive charge and hence a greater degree of water-solubility to proteins in neutral solution. Although arginine can be synthesized from cellular metabolites, it is usually considered essential to the diet of children for the maintenance of normal rates of growth. Arginine is the direct metabolic precursor of ureaurea
, organic compound that is the principal end product of nitrogen metabolism in most mammals. Urea was the first animal metabolite to be isolated in crystalline form; its crystallization was described in the early 18th cent.
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, the dominant nitrogenous waste product of most mammals. It was discovered in protein in 1895.
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arginine

[′ar·jə‚nēn]
(biochemistry)
C6H14N4O2 A colorless, crystalline, water-soluble, essential amino acid of the α-ketoglutaric acid family.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Citrulline, ornithine, and proline also play critical roles in arginine metabolism. Citrulline is a primary end product of NOS activity along with nitric oxide, and it is also generated from ADMA via dimethylarginine diaminohydrolase activity.
To better elucidate the mechanisms underlying arginine metabolism, we set out to develop a targeted metabolomics method that would simultaneously quantify 6 arginine metabolites in plasma with well-established roles in the arginine/iNOS/Arg1 pathway (see online Supplemental Fig.
Changes of the intestinal epithelial brush border membrane arginine transport activity reflect the status of both local enterocyte's arginine metabolism as well as whole organ system arginine metabolism (Pan et al., 2004).
Endogenous synthesis of arginine would be increased to maintain the stability of the whole arginine metabolism under oxidative stress.
Morris Jr., "Arginine metabolism: nitric oxide and beyond," The Biochemical Journal, vol.
Given the physiological roles of L-arginine metabolites, a considerable number of studies have investigated how brain arginine metabolism is affected by aging.
vulgaris cultivar FM 53 to salinity and to further contrast the effect of salination on arginine metabolism in P.
To characterize NOS and arginase activity in the whole mouse (using plasma) but also in isolated solid organs, we modified a method that was recently used by members of our group to quantify the effects of arginine intake on whole body arginine metabolism in neonatal piglets.
Morris Jr., "Arginine metabolism in vascular biology and disease," Vascular Medicine, vol.
A very recent study investigated the effect of low-dose glucocorticoids on arginine metabolisms by comparing patients who were chronically treated or not with prednisolone and demonstrated higher levels of ADMA and MMA in those patients who were not taking glucocorticoids; the authors conclude that long-term glucocorticoid treatment could help in protecting endothelial health in RA patients [109].