fallacy

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fallacy,

in logic, a term used to characterize an invalid argument. Strictly speaking, it refers only to the transition from a set of premises to a conclusion, and is distinguished from falsity, a value attributed to a single statement. The laws of syllogisms were systematically elaborated by Aristotle, and for an argument to be valid, it must adhere to all the laws; to be fallacious, it need only break one (see syllogismsyllogism,
a mode of argument that forms the core of the body of Western logical thought. Aristotle defined syllogistic logic, and his formulations were thought to be the final word in logic; they underwent only minor revisions in the subsequent 2,200 years.
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). The term fallacy has come to be used in a somewhat wider sense than the purely formal one. Informal fallacies are said to occur when statements are ambiguous or vague as to the logical form they represent, or when a multiplicity of meaning is present and the validity of the argument depends on switching meanings of a word or a phrase in midstream.

fallacy

Logic an error in reasoning that renders an argument logically invalid
References in periodicals archive ?
He shows that there are schemes of arguing that are quintessentially visual, providing "argument from fit" as an example.
He argues that, 'the standard version of the argument from concept possession is vulnerable to the traditional counterexamples to empiricism' (72).
27), neither do the "more accurate" arguments: on her view, the Argument from Relatives argues only for paradigmatic universals, while the one which introduces the Third Man argues only for separate universals.
The first Argument from the Sciences, like the "more accurate" Argument from Relatives, is a valid argument for paradigmatic universals on Fine's view; but, she claims, only the latter is a valid argument for perfect paradigms, and this is required on her interpretation to distinguish Platonic forms from Aristotelian universals (pp.
For Stove's argument relies upon an ambiguity which, once resolved, prevents his argument from going through.
Stove mounts his attack on Hume's argument by discussing an inductive argument from
In another, I develop a new scheme to account for a typically, though not necessarily, visual argument pattern-what I call an argument from fit.
Bork writes that "the argument from design is now bolstered by the findings of physics concerning the Big Bang.
Since the book's discussion is, as he admits at the outset, far from comprehensive--omitting, in particular, inductive teleological and cosmological arguments, and the inductive argument from evil--Gale's final conclusion is the limited, hypothetical one that "if the only arguments [for belief] were the epistemological and pragmatic arguments examined .
It is how Johnson separates argument from other discourse: "The chief differentiating factor is that in the practice of argumentation, truth is a fundamental consideration" (p.25).
Still, Folger's charge that the argument from nature is the linchpin of gay rights has some truth in it.
251) as an argument from pragmatic inconsistency, but one that is not a genuine type of ad hominem argument (in the narrower sense in which ad hominem is a personal attack argument).