Arikara


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Arikara

(ərĭk`ərə), Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Caddoan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). Archaeological evidence shows that they occupied the banks of the upper Missouri River since at least the 14th cent. A semisedentary group, they lived in earth-covered lodges. In winter they hunted buffalo, returning to their villages for spring planting; the Arikara were influential in bringing agricultural knowledge from the Southwest to the prehistoric peoples of the upper Missouri River. They traded corn with hunting tribes in return for buffalo hides and meat, and they were active in bartering with early white traders, who frequently called them the Rees. They were closely associated with the MandanMandan
, indigenous people of North America whose language belongs to the Siouan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languages). The Mandan were a sedentary tribe of the Plains area and were culturally connected with their neighbors on the Missouri
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 and the HidatsaHidatsa
, Native North Americans, also known as the Minitari and the Gros Ventre. Their language belongs to the Siouan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languages).
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; these three tribes now share the Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota. There were some 1,600 Arikara in the United States in 1990.

Bibliography

See D. J. Lehmer, Arikara Archaeology (1968); E. T. Denig, Five Indian Tribes of the Upper Missouri (1975).

References in periodicals archive ?
Now, two years later, previously friendly Indians (variously known as the Arikaras, Riccarces, or simply Rees) had turned hostile and were doing their best to annihilate General Ashley's men.
To jump-start the hydrogen fuel cell economy, Larry Bawden and Lee Arikara cofounded Jadoo Power Systems in 2001.
Of all the semisedentary villagers, Lewis and Clark found the Mandans to be "the most friendly, well disposed Indians inhabiting the Missouri." (78) Reflecting on his visit to the Mandans in 1795-96, explorer John Evans wrote how "they received me will all the Affability possible, many of their Chiefs Came to Meet me, at some distance from their village, and would not permit me to enter their village on foot, they carried me between four men in a Buffaloe Robe, to the Chiefs tents." (79) Similarly, when Mackenzie reached the Hidatsa villages in 1804, he marveled that "the natives flew in crowds to meet us." (80) Brackenridge found his Arikara hosts so eager to please his party that the Natives offered their women to them.
Will, great-grandfather of GRIT'S editor in chief, mentions that the Native American Arikara people grew a similar squash that wasn't quite equal in quality.
For example, contemporary Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara women in the Upper Missouri River creatively combine "various sources of subsistence--including commodity food and other welfare programs--to craft an informal network through which they redistribute resources and ensure community cohesion." (56) This is also the case in Lakota communities such as Pine Ridge and Rosebud, where people make a living by combining subsistence activities with microenterprise, odd jobs, barter, household production (e.g., beading, sewing, quilting, cooking for ceremonies), and giveaways.
In sixteen chronologically arranged chapters, Morris treats events such as Nathaniel Pryor's defeat at the hands of the Arikara in his attempt to return the Mandan Chief Sheheke to his people in 1807; the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-1812, witnessed by William Bratton and John Ordway; and Sacagawea's death in 1812.
Contact: Lee Arikara, Jadoo Power, phone 916-608-9044, e-mail info@jadoopower.com.
Strengthening tribal partnerships is one of the governors five strategic initiatives, and Burgum expressed his gratitude for the participation of tribal leaders and their staff from the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara Nation, known as the Three Affiliated Tribes; the Spirit Lake Tribe; the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe; the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians; and the Sisseton Wahpeton Oyate.
Well, as noted above, this is the 1860s and Lakota, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Mandan, Arikara (and etc.) leaders had been traveling to the eastern seaboard to visit Washington, D.C., New York, Philadelphia, and other populous eastern cities on trips paid for by the U.S.
Hedge Coke ends by dedicating the collection to the "original peoples of Blood Run site area, including: Ho-Chunk, Otoe, Ioway, Kansa, Omaha, Missouri, Quapaw, Ponca, Arikara, Dakota and Cheyenne Nations" (xvii).
There also are photos of men and women on horseback and of tipis or other homes, including Wichita grass houses and Arikara earth lodges.
When I wrote the article on Arikara Flag Songs (Vol.