In the present study, we established a suitable chronic AAN mice model with mice by administering intraperitoneal injections of aristolochic acids
I (AA I) and subsequently found pronounced MtD in their kidney tissues.
Among nitro-containing metabolites, the aristolochic acids
are a family of substituted 10-nitro-1-phenantropic acids, biogenetically derived from benzylisoquinoline precursors, which in turn originate from tyrosine amino acid (Michl et al., 2014; Kumar et al., 2003).
The medicines, used for a wide range of conditions including slimming, asthma and arthritis, are derived from a botanical compound containing aristolochic acids
The industrial chemical formaldehyde and a botanical known as aristolochic acids
are listed as known human carcinogens on the updated list.
, a family of naturally occurring chemicals in plants grown in the United States and other countries, also were classified as known human carcinogens.
In the 12th Report on Carcinogens, released in June 2011, the National Toxicology Program adds two substances to the list of known human carcinogens: formaldehyde (formerly listed as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen) and aristolochic acids
(botanical chemicals found in some Aristolochia - and Asarum-based herbal remedies, which are listed for the first time).
Exposure to the aristolochic acids
contained in the medicine can cause in kidney failure and cancer, particularly of the urinary tract, the MHRA said.
Exposure to aristolochic acids
can cause in kidney failure and cancer, particularly of the urinary tract, the MHRA said.
The authors concluded that "aristolochia toxins (aristolochic acids
and possibly other derivatives) cause renal disease and urothelial cancer."
The aristolochic acids
(AAs) are derivatives of nitrophenanthrene present in plants of the genus Asarum spp.
A first approach to develop a sensitive method to prove the presence or absence of aristolochic acids
in Chinese herbs was undertaken by Blatter and Reich (2004) and Wagner et al.