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Armagh(ärmä`), district (1991 pop. 49,050), 258 sq mi (668 sq km), S Northern Ireland. Armagh rises from boggy, fertile lowlands in the north to barren hills in the south. It is the fruit-growing center of Northern Ireland; cattle, sheep, pigs, and poultry are also raised. Armagh was noted for its fine linen, which has diversified into synthetic fibers. The area was the center of much sectarian fighting in the 1970s through the 1990s.
Armagh,city (1991 pop. 12,700), S Northern Ireland. Textiles, chemicals, and processed foods are produced in the city. Armagh (originally Ard Macha) has been the ecclesiastical capital of all Ireland since the 5th cent., when St. Patrick founded his church there. It is the seat of both Roman Catholic and Protestant archbishops. Besides its two cathedrals, the town contains an observatory and St. Patrick Diocesan College. Armagh suffered several Danish raids; it was destroyed by Shane O'Neill in 1566 and was burned in 1642. Nearby is Navan Fort, a large elliptical mound, on the site of Emania (or Emain Macha), the legendary pre-Christian capital of Ulster.
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1. a historical county of S Northern Ireland: in 1973 it was replaced for administrative purposes by the districts of Armagh and Craigavon. Area: 1326 sq. km (512 sq. miles)
2. a district in Northern Ireland, in Co. Armagh. Pop.: 55 449 (2003 est.). Area: 667 sq. km (258 sq. miles)
3. a town in S Northern Ireland, in Armagh district, Co. Armagh: seat of Roman Catholic and Protestant archbishops. Pop.: 14 590 (2001)
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