Armenian Apostolic Church

(redirected from Armenian Orthodox Church)
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Armenian Apostolic Church

 

one of the oldest Christian churches. Christianity began to be disseminated in Armenia in the early centuries of the Christian era. In A.D. 301 KingTiridates III proclaimed Christianity the state religion, thus differentiating himself with regard to religion from Sassanid Iran, which was trying to subjugate Armenia. In A.D. 303 a cathedral was built at Echmiadzin (near Yerevan), which became the religious center of all Armenians and the seat of the supreme patriarch and catholicos of all Armenians. The Armenian Apostolic Church is sometimes called Gregorian from the name of the first catholicos, Grigorii Parte v.

In the fourth century the Armenian Apostolic Church became a powerful economic and ideological organization, with large landholdings in its possession. At the Council of Dwin in 506 the church, reflecting the desire of the ruling classes of Armenia to oppose Byzantine aggression, definitively separated itself from the Byzantine Church and became autocephalous.

The Armenian Apostolic Church, in contrast to the Orthodox and Catholic churches, acknowledges the divinity and humanity of Christ within a single nature; for this reason it is considered Monophysite.

In the fourth to 11th centuries various heresies were widespread in Armenia: the Borboriani, the Messalians (fourth and fifth centuries), the Paulicians (sixth to ninth centuries), the Thondraki (from the ninth through the mid-11th centuries), and others. In these heresies the protest of the popular masses against feudal and clerical oppression was reflected under the guise of religion. The official church, with the support of the state, savagely suppressed these movements. Beginning in the 13th century the Catholic Church tried to spread its influence in Armenia; however, it was unsuccessful. After the loss of Armenia’s state form in the 14th century, the church remained as a centralized national organization. In time Echmiadzin ceased to be the center of the church. The center shifted consecutively to the cities of Dwin, Ani, Hromkla, and Sis. In 1441, Echmiadzin again became the residence of the church and has remained so to the present day. In the 17th and 18th centuries the Armenians were increasingly attracted toward Russia, from which they hoped to receive aid in their struggle against the rule of the Turkish and Iranian conquerors. Reflecting these moods, the Armenian catholicos tried to establish relations with Russia. Archbishop Iosif Argutinskii played a prominent role in the development of Russo-Armenian ties in the second half of the 18th century.

Under the circumstances of Armenia’s enslavement by foreigners, the Armenian Apostolic Church served as the center of culture and scholarship in Armenia. In the monastery schools there was instruction in rhetoric, grammar, philosophy, mathematics, and painting, as well as religion. Books and manuscripts were copied in the monasteries.

After the incorporation of Armenia into Russia in 1828, the tsarist government confirmed the basic privileges of the Armenian Apostolic Church. The rising Armenian bourgeoisie forced the church to serve its purposes and to fight against the revolutionary movement of the masses. Like other churches, the Armenian Apostolic Church took a hostile attitude toward the October Socialist Revolution. After the rise of the bourgeois Armenian republic of the Dashnaks (1918–20), the Armenian Apostolic Church supported the counterrevolutionary nationalist government of the Dashnaks. After the establishment of Soviet power in Armenia in 1920, the church was separated from the state, and the schools were separated from the church. The victory of socialism in the USSR inevitably caused a sharp decline in the influence of the Armenian Apostolic Church on the toiling masses. At the present time the church maintains a position of loyalty to Soviet power and participates in the struggle for peace. Since 1955 the head of the Armenian Apostolic Church has been Catholicos Vazgen I. At his residence in Echmiadzin there is a special theological seminary, and a regular monthly magazine entitled Echmiadzin is published there. Within the church the Echmiadzin catholicate has authority over the Cilician catholicate (Antelyas), the patriarchates of Jerusalem and Constantinople, and the various eparchial administrative subdivisions of the church—in the United States (the California and North American eparchies), South America, Western Europe (with its center in Paris), the Near and Middle East (the eparchies of Iran-Azerbaijan, Tehran, Isfahan, Iraq, and Egypt), the Far East (the Indian and Far Eastern eparchy), and the Balkans (the Rumanian, Bulgarian, and Greek eparchies).

REFERENCES

Ormanian, M. Armianskaia tserkov’: Ee istoriia, uchenie, upravlenie, vnutrenii stroi, liturgiia, literatura, ee nastoiashchee. Moscow, 1913. (Translated from French.)
Ocherki istorii SSSR, III-IX vv. Moscow, 1958. Pages 167–228, 408–502

S. N. OVANESIAN

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
BAGHDAD (NINA) - Interior Minister Yassin Taher al-Yassiri visited the Krikor Al-Munawar Armenian Orthodox Church in central Baghdad on Tuesday evening and met with the head of the sect in Iraq, His Eminence Bishop Avak Asadurian.
He said the international ceremony at the end of the restoration work, which was planned for November this year, has been postponed until May of next year or early June to allow the three churches in charge of the Church of Nativity -- the Greek Orthodox Patriarchs, the Custody of the Holy Land, and the Armenian Orthodox Church - to carry out the restoration of the grotto according to the Status Quo, since the grotto is the foundation and essence of holiness of the Church of the Nativity where Jesus Christ was born.
Archbishop Chrysostomos II of the Greek Orthodox Church, Archbishop Khoren of the Armenian Orthodox Church, Archbishop Soueif of the Maronite Church and the Latin Patriarchal Vicar Rev.
George the Victorious "in the Sredets district, the Assumption Church in the Kurilo district, the ''Holy Annunciation" temple in the Druzhba 2 neighborhood, the Armenian Orthodox Church of the Holy Virgin in Krasno Selo district, and the local parliament will discuss and a proposal for the adoption of the Cultural Heritage Program of the Sofia Municipality to support the owners of immovable cultural heritage so that they can carry out the necessary conservation and restoration activities.
The majority of Armenians belong to the Armenian Orthodox Church, which is one of the oldest churches in the world.
The plot was donated by the UAE leadership in an area where new churches are erected such as Saint Paul Catholic Church and Saint Martyrs' Armenian Orthodox Church.
Christmas celebrations erupted in the Armenian Orthodox Church on Ramses Street in Cairo on the morning of Saturday, 6 January 2018 -- screenshot taken from live video of the celebration CAIRO -- 6 January 2018: Christmas celebrations erupted in the Armenian Orthodox Church on Ramses Street in Cairo on Saturday morning.
The Pope said that he attended "only as a religious representative", in solidarity with the Armenian Orthodox Church.
While at the Evangelical School, I faced a dilemma: On Sunday I attended the liturgy in the Armenian Orthodox church with my family, and during the week, I attended Bible studies and memorized golden verses at school.
During his meeting with minority religious leaders at his office on the occasion of the New Year, Davutoglu said: "The rights of all our citizens' beliefs are sacred to us." The meeting gathered Greek Orthodox Patriarch of the Phanar Bartholomew I, Turkey's chief Rabbi Isak Haleva, chairman of Turkey's Religious Affairs Department Mehmet Gormez and the Vicar of the Armenian Orthodox Church Aram Atesyan, Turkey's Anadolu Agency (AA) reported.
The meeting was chaired by Maronite Patriarch Beshara Rai and attended by Ignatius Aphrem II, patriarch of the Syriac Orthodox Church; Nerses Bedros XIX, patriarch of the Armenian Catholic Church; Gregory III Laham, patriarch of the Church of Antioch; Ignatius III Younan, patriarch of Antioch and all the East for the Syriac Catholic Church; Catholicos Aram I Kechichian of the Armenian Orthodox Church; and John X, patriarch of Antioch and all the East for the Roman Orthodox Church.
Historically, the Armenian Orthodox Church has been through many challenges over the centuries.

Full browser ?