Armenian language


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Armenian language,

member of the Thraco-Phrygian subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Indo-EuropeanIndo-European,
family of languages having more speakers than any other language family. It is estimated that approximately half the world's population speaks an Indo-European tongue as a first language.
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). There is evidence that in ancient times a distinct subfamily of Indo-European languages existed that is now called Thraco-Phrygian. To it belonged Phrygian (an ancient and now extinct Indo-European language of Anatolia) and Thracian (a now dead Indo-European tongue of the Balkans in antiquity). Modern Armenian may well be a direct descendant of Phrygian. Today Armenian is the mother tongue of more than 5 million people, of whom over 3 million live in Armenia; more than 1 million live in Russia, Georgia, and Ukraine; and the rest are in the Middle East, the Balkans, and the United States. Armenian is an old, rich, and vital language. Although spoken in antiquity, it was not recorded in writing until the early 5th cent. A.D. At that time an alphabet of 36 letters was specially designed for Armenian by St. Mesrop, who used Greek and Iranian letters as a basis. Later, two more letters were added to the alphabet. In its early, or classical, form, Armenian is called Grabar or Krapar. This was the literary language until the 19th cent. and is still the liturgical language of the Armenian Church (see Armenian literatureArmenian literature.
The Armenian Church fostered literature, and the principal early works are religious or hagiographical, most of them translations. The first major Armenian literary work is a 5th cent.
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). It differed greatly from the spoken language. Grammatically, it has six cases for the noun and nine tenses for the verb, but it has lost gender. The modern form of Armenian, now used for literature as well as for speaking, dates from the 16th cent. and is known as Ashksarhik or Ashksarhabar. Its grammar is simpler than that of Classical Armenian. The history of the Armenian people is reflected in the sources of the words borrowed by their language. For example, Armenian has absorbed words from Persian, owing to Parthian domination in the centuries immediately before and after Jesus, from Greek and Syriac as a result of Christian influence, from French during the Crusades, and from Turkish in the course of several centuries of Turkish rule. For grammars see S. L. Kogian (1949) and K. H. Gulian (1954); John A. Greppin and A. A. Khachaturian, Handbook of Armenian Dialectology (1986).
References in periodicals archive ?
As for the library, it includes more than 1,700 books and 90,000 manuscripts in the Armenian language for the most part, but some are also in Latin and Greek.
In Armenian schools, required subjects are taught in Turkish, and except for classes that teach the Armenian language and religion, there are no lessons on Armenian history and culture.
The Armenian language that is cited in this essay is colloquial.
Use of the Armenian language is an important link to the sense of history and identity in all countries where Armenians live (including the United States).
Monk, theologian, and linguist who according to tradition devised an alphabet for the Armenian language and employed it in translations of the Bible, laying the foundation for Armenia's golden age of Christian literature.
Volume I, Mamuryan Publishing House, 1911, page 9 in the Armenian language)
The Consul General had opportunity to assess the level of students knowledge of the Armenian language, history, and literature.
Iran is ready to publish books in Armenian language, he added.
ySTANBUL (CyHAN)- Turkey's Directorate of Religious Affairs has published 4,000 copies of the Quran in the Armenian language, part of its plans to eventually translate the holy book into 15 languages.
Hagop Migabart printed the first book in the Armenian language.
On the other hand, Director of Al-Tathamin High school, Mona Al-Qallaf, said in a speech during the ceremony, "We celebrate this year marking 50 years since the opening one of the most important educational institutes in the State of Kuwait, which plays an important role in education and teachers, under the strong belief that they play a role in the county's development." Al-Qallaf said, "The Armenian people have great history, as they faced challenges and stood strong in their beliefs, they built churches where they held their religious rituals, and maintained the Armenian language, which is an important pillar of the community's strength." Meanwhile, Armenian School Director, Manuel Manokien said that the Kuwaiti and Armenian people have joint goals and similar sufferings.
This school played a vital role in the past 80 years towards the support and development of the Armenian language, culture and history, as well as for the preservation of this nation's identity.

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