Arnold Toynbee

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Toynbee, Arnold

(toin`bē), 1852–83, English economic historian, philosopher, and reformer. After his graduation in 1878 he was a tutor at Balliol College, Oxford, and was active in reform work outside the university, particularly among the London poor. His influence on his students and contemporaries was great, although he lived to be only 31. Toynbee was interested in applying historical method to the study of economics. He objected to Marxism, believing that the best interests of labor and capital lay in cooperation. His lectures to workingmen were published as Lectures on the Industrial Revolution of the 18th Century in England (1884), a pioneer work in economic history. Toynbee Hall in London, the first settlement house, was named for him.


See biographies by A. Milner (1901) and F. C. Montague (1889, repr. 1973).

Toynbee, Arnold


Born Aug. 23, 1852, in London; died Mar. 9, 1883, in Wimbledon. English economic historian.

Toynbee graduated from Oxford University, where in 1878 he began teaching political economy and economic history. His studies of the capitalist industrialization of England were published under the title The Industrial Revolution (1884; Russian translation, 1898). Toynbee viewed the age of the industrial revolution as the most calamitous period in English history and believed it led to a marked widening of the gulf between the proletariat and the ruling classes. He held that relations between labor and capital should be moderated by government intervention, and to that end he advocated social legislation and arbitration as a means of preventing class conflicts at industrial enterprises. He also helped organize and direct the first education centers in working-class neighborhoods. Objectively, Toynbee’s activities were instrumental in stemming the growing influence of socialist ideas on English workers.


Montague, F. C. Arnold Toynbee. Baltimore, 1889.
Toynbee, A. J. Experiences. London, 1969.
References in periodicals archive ?
When Arnold Toynbee spoke of a 'bitter argument between economists and human beings' he was drawing on an intellectual tradition that goes back to Coleridge and Ruskin, and still influences how non-economists think of economists.
Y me ahogo en ese tema, en parte un privilegio, en parte un fastidio, con ilustraciones de los clasicos, y los dichos de Einstein y de Zsa Zsa Gabor, salpicado con referencias al socialismo polaco y a las tacticas en el futbol de George Halas y los motivos secretos de Arnold Toynbee y, de algun modo, a los negocios de automoviles usados.
27) Green's tutelage of Arnold Toynbee, who died only a year later, was fictionalised in the relationship between 'Professor Grey' and Robert Elsmere in Mrs Humphrey Ward's novel Robert Elsmere, published to wide acclaim in 1888.
Arnold Toynbee in his "A Study of History" summarized history by dividing the subject up into history, science and fiction by order of techniques.
HIS Hampstead home was a nest of nannies and liberal notions propagated by his father, who had formed the Boys' Club movement with Arnold Toynbee.
It was there that, for some thirty years, the historian Arnold Toynbee presided as Director of Studies.
The philosopher of history, Arnold Toynbee, in analyzing the demise of a civilization, spoke of the different ways a culture responds to challenge.
Two years before, President Kennedy, quoting historian Arnold Toynbee, noted in a special message to Congress that "a society's quality and durability can best be measured 'by the respect and care given its elderly citizens.
The paper notes that the link among culture, language, education, and individual and societal well-being appeared earlier in the work of the historian Arnold Toynbee.
It is an old idea that forms the basis for the elaborate analyses of such disparate philosophers of history as Oswald Spengler and Arnold Toynbee.
Trying to discern how civilizations developed was one of the great tasks of historians, from Oswald Spengler to Arnold Toynbee, in the years running up to World War II.
In World Historians and Their Goals, Paul Costello describes the development of metahistory through great historians such as Arnold Toynbee and William McNeill.