Arshile Gorky


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Related to Arshile Gorky: Mark Rothko, Jackson Pollock

Gorky, Arshile

(är`shīl gôr`kē), c.1900–48, American painter, b. Armenia as Vosdanig Adoian. He escaped the Turkish slaughter of Armenians, emigrated to the United States in 1920, studied at Boston's New School of Design, and moved to New York City in 1925. An extraordinarily fluid draftsman inspired by IngresIngres, Jean Auguste Dominique
, 1780–1867, French painter, b. Montauban; son of a sculptor. He studied with J. L. David in Paris and in 1801 won the Prix de Rome. The French government could not afford to award the prize until 1806.
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, PicassoPicasso, Pablo
(Pablo Ruiz y Picasso) , 1881–1973, Spanish painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and ceramist, who worked in France. He is generally considered in his technical virtuosity, enormous versatility, and incredible originality and prolificity to have been the
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, and several other artists, Gorky developed a figurative style of great refinement. A more radical turn in his art was prompted by the spontaneous automatism found in surrealismsurrealism
, literary and art movement influenced by Freudianism and dedicated to the expression of imagination as revealed in dreams, free of the conscious control of reason and free of convention.
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 and in the works of MiróMiró, Joan
, 1893–1983, Spanish surrealist painter. After studying in Barcelona, Miró went to Paris in 1919. In the 1920s he came into contact with cubism and surrealism.
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 and MattaMatta
(Roberto Sebastián Antonio Matta Echaurren) , 1911?–2002, Chilean painter who left his native country for Paris (1935) and thereafter worked in Europe and the United States, b. Santiago.
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. Gorky began (c.1940) to create abstractions consisting of involved, voluptuously organic shapes and glowing colors, all enveloped in an aura of mystery. In these works he became a pioneer in the development of abstract expressionismabstract expressionism,
movement of abstract painting that emerged in New York City during the mid-1940s and attained singular prominence in American art in the following decade; also called action painting and the New York school.
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. His reputation had already been established when, after a series of personal and professional disasters, he committed suicide at the age of 44. Gorky is well represented in American collections, e. g., in New York City, Water of the Flowery Mill is in the Metropolitan Museum and there are works at the Museum of Modern Art and the Whitney Museum.

Bibliography

See catalog by J. Levy (1966); biographies by D. Waldman (1987), M. Spender (1999), and H. Herrera (2003); H. Rosenberg, Arshile Gorky: The Man, the Time, the Idea (1962, repr. 1981); K. Mooradian, The Many Worlds of Arshile Gorky (1981); H. Rand, Arshile Gorky: The Implications of Symbols (1981); C. Zwerin, dir., Arshile Gorky (documentary film, 1982).

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Gorky, Arshile (b. Vosdanig Manoog Adoian)

(1904–48) painter; born in Khorkom Vari Haiyotz Dzur, Armenia. He emigrated to Rhode Island (1920), and settled in New York City (1924), then in Sherman, Connecticut (1945). He combined the abstract modernism of Europe and a form of organic surrealism. Influenced by Picasso, his most famous work is The Liver is the Cock's Comb (1944).
The Cambridge Dictionary of American Biography, by John S. Bowman. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1995. Reproduced with permission.
References in periodicals archive ?
(1.) Roberto Matta Echaurren, "Conversation with Maro Gorky," May 29, 1997, at Maro Gorky's house in Paris, Matthew Spender, Arshile Gorky, Goats on the Roof: A Life in Letter and Documents (London: Ridinghouse, 2009), p.
Taylor, ed., Arshile Gorky: A Retrospective (Philadelphia/New Haven: Philadelphia Museum of Art, 2009).
His work resisted definition, often featuring fragmented objects, intense natural colours and dramatic effects, and was influenced by a number of different sources including Russian composer Dmitri Shostakovich - Williams worked on his acclaimed Shostakovich series for more than a decade, abstract expressionists such as Jackson Pollock and Arshile Gorky, and most importantly, the ancient indigenous cultures of Central and South America.
"Arshile Gorky: A Retrospective," edited by Michael R.
In his autobiography, Hartley notes that Cezanne offered "ideas that were to make the world of painting over again and give modernism its next powerful start," adding that "there is no modern picture that has not somehow or other been built upon these new principles." Arshile Gorky studied Cezanne closely, and the exhibition reflects his keen engagement with Cezanne's style, especially in the mid to late 1920s.
Arshile Gorky (c.1904-1948) was an Armenian painter, who spent the greater part of his short life in the United States.
Featuring highlights of the permanent collection of the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, the title includes short essays and full-color photographs of pieces from artists such as Andy Warhol, Kara Walker, Bill Viola, Cy Twombly, Frank Stella, Cindy Sherman, Julian Schnabel, Edward Ruscha, Mark Rothko, Robert Rauschenberg, Jackson Pollock, Kenneth Noland, Louise Nevelson, Piet Mondrian, Agnes Martin, Morris Louis, Sol Le Witt, Willem de Kooning, Franz Kline, Ellsworth Kelly, Donald Judd, Arshile Gorky, Sam Francis, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Diane Arbus, and over 100 others.
Arshile Gorky's The Liver is the Cock's Comb (1944) and Jackson Pollock's Convergence (1952) belong to the Albright-Knox Art Gallery in Buffalo, where this show travels next year (after appearing at the Saint Louis Art Museum through January 11).
The family settled in Connecticut, and Andre Masson's "automatic" drawings are cited as a seminal influence on Jackson Pollock and Arshile Gorky, pioneers of abstract expressionism.
A leading authority on the New York School of Abstract Expressionism, including Willem de Kooning, Franz Kline, Arshile Gorky, and John Graham, Stone opened The Allan Stone Gallery in 1960, showing works by Willem de Kooning, Cesar, Joseph Cornell, and Barnett Newman.