The first journal on fine arts in Russia was Zhurnal iziashchnykh iskusstv (Journal of Fine Arts), which was published in Moscow in 1807 by I. F. Bule. Its goal was to “disseminate artistic knowledge” and “further the elevation of taste.” A journal of the same title was published in St. Petersburg in 1823 and 1825 by V. I. Grigorovich. Khudozhestvennaia gazeta (Art Newspaper), which was published in St. Petersburg from 1836 to 1841 and was edited by N. V. Kukol’nik and A. N. Strugovshchikov, dealt with the major developments in art. The problems encountered in the study of old Russian art were discussed in Vestnik obshchestva drevnerusskogo iskusstva (Herald of the Society of Old Russian Art), which was published in Moscow from 1874 to 1876. The journal Vestnik iziashchnykh iskusstv (Herald of Fine Arts) was primarily devoted to problems of technique in the plastic arts.
Iskusstvo i khudozhestvennaia promyshlennost’ (Art and Art Industry) was associated with the democratic movement at the turn of the 20th century. Its goal was to disseminate artistic knowledge among the people. The journal Mir iskusstva (World of Art) publicized the newest achievements of European and Russian art of the 18th and early 19th century. It was distinguished by its craftsmanship of design. The monthly journals Vesy (Scales; Moscow, 1904–09), Iskusstvo (Art; Moscow, 1905), Zolotoe runo (Golden Fleece), and Iskusstvo i pechatnoe delo (Art and Printing; Kiev, 1909–14) were similar to Mir iskusstva. In 1914 the title of the journal Iskusstvo i pechatnoe delo was changed to Iskusstvo v Iuzhnoi Rossii (Art in Southern Russia). Khudozhestvennye sokrovishcha Rossii (Russian Art Treasures; St. Petersburg, 1901–07), which was published by the Society for the Encouragement of the Arts, was intended for a small circle of art lovers and connoisseurs, as was the journal Starye gody (Bygone Days). Apollon (Apollo) dealt with questions concerning the theater, fine arts, music, and literature of the pre-revolutionary period.
After the October Revolution of 1917, a large number of specialized and general art journals appeared in the USSR and were concerned with current developments in art and with the controversy about the future paths of Soviet art. Among these journals were Russkoe iskusstvo (Russian Art; Moscow, 1923), concerning the plastic arts, theater, literature, music, and folk art; Sredi kollektsionerov (Among Collectors; Moscow, 192124); Graviura ikniga (Engraving and Book; Moscow, 1924–25, published by the Russian Academy of Art Studies); and Iskusstvo v massy (Art to the Masses; Moscow, 1929–32, published by the Association of Artists of Revolutionary Russia and the Russian Association of Proletarian Artists). This last journal became known as Za proletarskoe iskusstvo (For Proletarian Art) in 1931. Since 1930 several all-Union monthly journals have been published in Moscow. These include Iskusstvo (Art), Tvorchestvo (Creation), and Dekorativnoe iskusstvo SSSR (Decorative Art of the USSR).
Among the outstanding art journals published in the various republics of the USSR are Khudozhnik (Artist; Moscow, published monthly since 1958), Obrazotvorche mystetstvo (Fine Art; Kiev, pubished since 1935, except from 1941 to 1969; from 1954 to 1969, problems of fine art were treated in the journal Mystetstvo), Maksla (Art; Riga, published quarterly since 1959), Sabchota khelovneba (Soviet Art; Tbilisi, first published in 1927, published with interruptions since 1935), and Sovetakan arvest (Soviet Art; Yerevan, published with interruptions since 1932). Sovetakan arvest was known as Khorurdain arvest (Soviet Art) until 1955.
The earliest art journals published outside the USSR include Die Diskurse der Maler (Germany, 1721), Museum (Great Britain, 1749), and Bibliothèque des sciences et des beaux-arts (France, 1754). By the early 1970’s more than 500 art journals were being published abroad, containing articles devoted to the study of European and Oriental art history. In France the monthly Gazette des beaux-arts has been published in Paris since 1859. Italian art journals include L ‘Arte (Milan, published quarterly since 1898), Bolletino d’arte (Rome, published quarterly since 1907), Commentari (Rome, published quarterly since 1950), and Emporium (Bergamo, published monthly since 1895). In Great Britain art publications include Burlington Magazine (London, published monthly since 1903) and Oriental Art (London, published since 1955). Art Bulletin (New York, published quarterly since 1917) is a prominent American art journal. Other foreign art journals include the Spanish Goya (Madrid, published six times a year since 1954), the West German Pantheon (Munich, published six times a year since 1960), the Indian Marg (Bombay, published quarterly since 1943) and Roopa-Lekha (New Delhi, published quarterly since 1929), and the Japanese Mizue (Tokyo, published monthly since 1905) and Sansai (Tokyo, published monthly since 1946).
In addition to an interest in general problems of art history, some journals devote a great deal of attention to the history of national art. These include the Polish Biuletyn historii sztuki (Warsaw, published quarterly since 1949), the Czech Umeni (Prague, published six times a year since 1953), and the Hungarian Művészettőrténeti értesítö (Budapest, published quarterly since 1952).
Many journals are devoted to current developments and trends in art. Among these journals are the British Studio (London, published monthly since 1893; known as Studio International since 1965), the West German Kunstwerk (Stuttgart, published monthly since 1946), and the American Art News (New York, published monthly since 1902) and Art in America (New York, published six times a year since 1913). Contemporary issues in art are also discussed in the East German Bildende Kunst (Dresden, published monthly since 1953), the Bulgarian Izkustvo (Sofia, published monthly since 1951), the Polish Przeglqd artystyczny (Warsaw, published six times a year since 1950; published in Kraków from 1946 to 1950), the Hungarian Művészet (Budapest, published monthly since 1960), the Czech Výtvarné umeění (Prague, published monthly since 1951), and the Rumanian Arta (Bucharest, published monthly since 1954; known as Arta plasticd until 1968).
E. N. BERKOVSKAIA