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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



Persian kings of the Achaemenid Dynasty.

Artaxerxes I, “Long Hand.” Artaxerxes I reigned from 465 to 424 B.C. He attained the throne after his father Xerxes I was killed as the result of a court conspiracy. At the beginning of his reign Artaxerxes put down an uprising by the Egyptians, who were supported by the Athenians; the latter had been engaged in war with the Achaemenid Empire. In 454 the Persians destroyed the Athenian fleet in the Nile Delta. After the Athenian victory at Salamis in 449 (on Cyprus), Artaxerxes concluded the Peace of Callias, which brought the Greco-Persian wars to an end. In accordance with this peace treaty, Artaxerxes I recognized the political independence of the Greek cities of Asia Minor. Despite growing separatist tendencies among the members of the Persian aristocracy—for example, the rebellion of Megabyzus, circa 449 B.C.—and uprisings of subject peoples, the central authority remained quite powerful during the rule of Artaxerxes I, and the integrity of the Achaemenid state was basically preserved.

Artaxerxes II, Mnēmon. Artaxerxes II reigned from 404 to 358 B.C. He was the oldest son of Darius II. At the beginning of his reign Artaxerxes II engaged in a struggle for the throne with his younger brother Cyrus, the ruler of Asia Minor. Despite a number of successes in foreign policy—for example, the destruction of the Spartan fleet at Cnidus in 394 and the Peace of Antalcidas in 386—during the reign of Artaxerxes II the Achaemenid state became weaker. Several revolts were launched against Artaxerxes II by satraps, vassal princes, and semidependent tribes (the Cadusians and others).

Artaxerxes III, Ochus. Artaxerxes III reigned from 358 to 338 B.C. He was the son of Artaxerxes II; he became king after the liquidation of his elder brothers, in which he took an active part. With great energy Artaxerxes III attempted to restore the integrity of the Achaemenid state. He prohibited the satraps from maintaining mercenary troops, and with great cruelty he suppressed a number of uprisings (in Asia Minor and Phoenicia and on Cyprus). In 341 he again annexed Egypt, which had seceded from the Achaemenid state at the end of the fifth century B.C. Artaxerxes III was murdered by his close adviser, the eunuch Bagoas.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
This confusion seems to have resulted at least in part from the difficult narrative arrangement of Ezra 4, which jumps ahead to the reign of Achashverosh and Artaxerxes I before returning to the chronological narrative and the reign of Darius I in 4:24 and chapter 5.
In ihr legt er Rechenschaft uber seine Teilnahme an dem Feldzug des Kyros gegen seinen Bruder Konig Artaxerxes und die von ihm massgeblich bestimmte Ruckfuhrung der 10000 ab.
The third incident occurs while Roverandom is visiting the wizard Artaxerxes at the bottom of the sea: the ancient Sea-serpent starts waking up and causes an unusual whirlpool (75).
The story is set at the height of the Persian Empire, and the Persians who populate it have a secure basis in Achaemenid history: King Artaxerxes II (405-359 BCE) is the ruler who figures in Xenophon's Anabasis, whose brother, Cyrus the Younger, rebelled against him and lost his life at the Battle of Cunaxa in 401 BCE; he was the ruler whose health was cared for by Ctesias of Cindus, who worked as a royal physician at the Persian court.
A trap, Artaxerxes (in the Apr 1972 Enigma) and Howard Richler's Sex at my gym taxes!
The "Ten Thousand," a group of Greek mercenaries hired by Cyrus the Younger (King Darius II's son), attempt to wrest control of the throne of the Persian Empire from Artaxerxes II.
In his discussion of "the stereotyping of Persia" in the same section (57) the author makes another intriguing observation: that such stereotyping is complicated by the depiction of Artaxerxes as a sympathetic character and in particular one resisting divinization.
An army of 10 000 Greek mercenaries under the leadership of Cyrus mustered to dethrone Cyrus's brother, Artaxerxes Mnemon, the former king of the Persian Empire.
Topping the charts in 1762 was the hit Artaxerxes, sung all-in-English by Giusto Tenducci.
The texts here derive from the Uruk period, around 3,000 BC, to the Persian period of Artaxerxes; geographically they range from Egypt and Iran to the cuneiform heartlands of Sumer, Babylonia, and Assyria.
Die historiese agtergrond vir hierdie roman is die sogenaamde afmars of terugtog van die beroemde Tienduisend van Xenophon nadat hy en sy Griekse huursoldate die Persiese Prins Kuros ondersteun het in sy mislukte veldtog teen sy broer ArtaXerxes, wat toe leier was van die Persiese Ryk (401 v.C.).
The most lavish play of all was the first, known in Russian as Artakserksevo deistvo, or "The Artaxerxes Play," which made its debut on 17 October 1672.