Artels


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Artels

 

various forms of voluntary associations of people to carry out an economic activity in common. For instance, so-called service artels are short-term or seasonal associations of carpenters, lumberjacks, and so on. The term “artel” was most often applied to associations set up for the joint performance of work processes and operations (working, agricultural, fishing artels) or to associations that partly consolidated the owning of the means of production without socializing the work of its members (butter- and cheese-producing artels). The term was more rarely applied to associations of joint exchange operations (supply and marketing societies). Artels arise with the development of capitalism. In bourgeois countries there are associations of small commodity producers that aim to adopt the economic activity of its members to the conditions of the capitalist economy.

In the USSR and the other socialist countries the agricultural artel is one of several forms of the collective management of the economy on the basis of the socialization of the means of production. Trade producers’ artels and trade agricultural artels, where trade is the chief occupation and agriculture is subsidiary, existed in the USSR until 1960 and still exist in other socialist countries.

References in periodicals archive ?
Shared Sovereignty in the Deportation Convoys: The Convict's Artel
Convicts responded to the brutal and unpredictable environment of the deportation convoys by organizing themselves into an artel, or prisoners' association, for the duration of the journey into exile.
At the outset of the journey, the artel oversaw the maidan, which provided a number of commercial services within the marching convoy--grocers' shop, tobacconist, liquor store, and gambling den.
Through the institution of the artel, the convoy commanders dispersed disciplinary responsibilities throughout the marching convoy in exchange for the extension of concessions to all.
Another of the artel's primary responsibilities was the enforcement of contracts, from the strictly financial to the very personal, between its members.
(78) Anyone attempting to renege on such agreements would incur the wrath of the artel and might be, in Kennan's words, "condemned to death by this merciless Siberian Vehmgericht." Even those who escaped immediate punishment might subsequently be hunted down and found with their throats slit in some remote village or waystation.
Under the state-sponsored auspices of the artel, the practice of name swapping, already an acknowledged problem at the beginning of the 19th century, flourished as the size of the marching convoys swelled in the 1820s.