Arthur Griffith


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Griffith, Arthur,

1872–1922, Irish statesman, founder of Sinn FéinSinn Féin
[Irish,=we, ourselves], Irish nationalist movement. It had its roots in the Irish cultural revival at the end of the 19th cent. and the growing nationalist disenchantment with the constitutional Home Rule movement.
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. He joined the nationalist movement as a young man. In 1899 he founded the United Irishman, in which he advocated that Irish members of Parliament withdraw from Westminster and organize their own assembly. His goal was the creation of a dual monarchy of England and Ireland, like that of Austria-Hungary. His ideas found adherents who, in 1905, formed the Sinn Féin. Griffith took no part in the Easter Rebellion of 1916, but he was imprisoned several times (1916–18) by the British. Elected to Parliament in 1918, he joined the other Sinn Féiners in forming Dáil ÉireannDáil Éireann
[Irish,=diet of Ireland], the popular representative body of the Oireachtas, or National Parliament, of the Republic of Ireland. The second, smaller chamber, the Saenad Éireann, or Senate, has very limited powers, and the executive, as
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 and was elected its vice president. He led the Irish delegation that negotiated the treaty (1921) establishing the Irish Free State. When Eamon De Valera, president of the Dáil, rejected the treaty, Griffith succeeded to his office. He died suddenly at the beginning of the civil war.

Bibliography

See biographies by P. Colum (1959) and V. E. Glandon (1985); study by C. Younger, A State of Disunion (1972).

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Griffith, Arthur

 

Born Mar. 31. 1872, in Dublin; died there Aug. 12, 1922. Irish political figure. Bourgeois nationalist and professional journalist.

Griffith was one of the founders of the Sinn Fein Party (1905) and was the leader of its right wing. From 1910 to 1917 he was chairman and then vice-chairman of the party. He refused to take part in the Irish uprising of 1916. During the guerrilla war against Great Britain (1919–21), Griffith was in prison from 1920 and negotiated with the British government from there. On Dec. 6, 1921, he signed the Anglo-Irish treaty that created the Irish Free State (Eire) in southern and central Ireland while preserving British dominance of Northern Ireland. Having become in January 1922 the head of the new state, he took part in organizing reprisals against the opponents of the treaty.

L. I. GOL’MAN

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
This thoroughly researched biography's main strength is that it brings a nineteenth-century perspective to the life of Arthur Griffith, a figure more often approached from a twentieth-century vantage point.
Its co-founder and president was none other than Arthur Griffith, who had shuttered the United Irishman, supplanting it in 1906 with the new Sinn Fein Weekly.
(33) See Patrick Maume, "Young Ireland, Arthur Griffith, and Republican Ideology: The Question of Continuity," Eire-Ireland 34:2 (Summer 1999), 161.
1905: The Irish political party, Sinn Fein, was founded by Arthur Griffith in Dublin.
He mocked Griffith in recognisable terms: 'bluff, bounce and blatherskite', 'Garrulous Griff, Arthur Griffith, MLA, plenipotentiary to Oom Paul Kruger--Australian Branch', 'one of those bubonic germs introduced to this State by payment of members'.
Arthur Griffith's antisemitism cannot be dismissed with the comment that it hardly differed from the British norm at the time; the 1904 Limerick pogrom was condemned by Unionists and members of the Irish party but not by Griffith.
O'Kelly, Cathal Brugha, Arthur Griffith, or Michael Collins, he conveys vivid pictures of these men and their goals.
It was shunted into its now lessprominent position to make room for the cenotaph marking the deaths of Irish Independence heroes Michael Collins and Arthur Griffith.
Cawn glywed mai Cymro o dras oedd Thomas Davis (1814-1845) sefydlydd y mudiad Young Ireland a chyfansoddwr caneuon grymus megis A Nation Once Again a The West's Awake, a hefyd Arthur Griffith, sylfaenydd Sinn Fein.
In reality, the latter constituted a two-man clique of Michael Collins, whose vanity appeared to be matched only be his incompetence (77), and Arthur Griffith, dismissed by Drill secretary and de Valera ally Erskine Childers as "muzzy with whiskey" and "in genuine sympathy with many of the English claims" (75).
WHEN John Millington Synge's threeact play was first performed in 1907, Sinn Fein leader Arthur Griffith declared it "a vile and inhuman story told in the foulest language we have ever listened to from a public platform".
SINN Fein looks set to go on a recruitment drive next year as it prepares to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the party founded by Arthur Griffith on November 28, 1905.