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artichoke,name for two different plants of the family Asteraceae (asteraster
[Gr.,=star], common name for the Asteraceae (Compositae), the aster family, in North America, name for plants of the genus Aster, sometimes called wild asters, and for a related plant more correctly called China aster (Callistephus chinensis
..... Click the link for more information. family), both having edible parts. The French, or globe, artichoke (Cynara scolymus) is a thistlelike plant of which the globular flower heads are used in the immature state as a salad or vegetable; only the lower part of the fleshy bracts ("leaves") and the center ("heart") are eaten. The cultivation of this S European plant is now a considerable industry in California. A large part of the yearly crop is canned for export to South America. The edible blanched leaves and leafstalks are called chard. The other artichoke plant is the Jerusalem artichokeJerusalem artichoke,
tuberous-rooted perennial (Helianthus tuberosus) of the family Asteraceae (aster family), native to North America, where it was early cultivated by the indigenous inhabitants.
..... Click the link for more information. . Artichokes are classified in the division MagnoliophytaMagnoliophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. The angiosperms have leaves, stems, and roots, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
..... Click the link for more information. , class Magnoliopsida, order Asterales, family Asteraceae.
(Cynara), a genus of perennial herbaceous plants of the family Compositae. The leaves of the artichoke are large and lobed or serrated. The violet, blue, or white tubular blossoms occur in anthodia with an involucre of mul-tiseriate, regularly arranged leaves. There are about 12 species in the Mediterranean countries and the Canary Islands. Two closely related species are cultivated—the car-doon and the true artichoke. The cardoon, or Spanish artichoke (Cynara cardunculus), grows wild in southern Europe, northern Africa, the Canary Islands, and Madeira. At one time it reached tropical America, became wild, and spread on the extratropical plains. The skinned leaves and main leaf ribs are used for food; the fleshy, spicy heart is edible when cooked.
The true, or prickly artichoke (C. scolymus) is widely cultivated in southern Europe and the USSR, chiefly in Kras-nodarsk Krai. The stalk is usually branching and is 0.5–1 m high. The fleshy receptacle of unopened flower clusters and the thickened bases of the scales on the lower rows of the involucre and sometimes on the thick roots are used for food, cooked and canned. The flower receptacle contains 2.5–3 percent protein, 7–15 percent hydrocarbons, 3–11 mg percent of vitamin C, 0.4 mg percent of carotene, vitamins B1 and B2, and 86–88 percent water. The seeds of the artichoke contain about 30 percent fat and are used in poultry feed.
The artichoke plant is also used as a fodder plant (green fodder and silage) and a decorative plant. Laonskii 19, Violet, and Maikopskii 41 are varieties of artichoke found in the USSR. The artichoke is propagated from seeds and cuttings. In southern regions it is grown in a three- or four-year culture, and in the middle zone it is grown as an annual culture by the hotbed method. The yield of flower clusters is 5–25 tons per hectare.
REFERENCESVasilenko, N. G. Malorasprostrannennye ovoshchi i priany erasteniia. Moscow, 1962.
Ipat’ev, A. N. Ovoshchnye rasteniia zemnogo shara. Minsk, 1966.