artefact

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artefact

, artifact
Cytology a structure seen in tissue after death, fixation, staining, etc., that is not normally present in the living tissue
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

artefact

or

artifact

any individual material object produced by a culture. The study of such objects is important in anthropology (see MATERIAL CULTURE). In ARCHAEOLOGY, the artefacts left behind by a society are the main means of reconstructing an account of that society.
Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000

artifact

(1) Any element in a software development project. It includes documentation, test plans, images, data files and executable modules.

(2) A distortion in an image or sound caused by a limitation or malfunction in the hardware or software. Artifacts may or may not be easily detectable. Under intense inspection, one might find artifacts all the time, but a few pixels out of balance or a few milliseconds of abnormal sound often go undetected.

Analog Artifacts
In film, artifacts such as blotches, scratches and flicker are commonly found, especially in older movies. Imperfections in the camera lenses and silver-grain film itself can generate "noise," which appears as tiny background specks, making the image softer. The electronic recording of analog videotapes can introduce noise as well. See noise.

Digital Artifacts
Artifacts are a natural byproduct of digital compression methods such as JPEG and MPEG, which permanently discard pixels. The greater the compression used, the more artifacts are likely, and fast motion sequences are a major contributor. As TV screens become larger, the distortions are more noticeable. In digital cameras, artifacts may arise when performing digital zoom. When analog material is converted to digital, tiny discrepancies (quantization errors) may result. See blocking artifacts, mosquito noise, feathering and quantization error.
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References in periodicals archive ?
After verification of their origin and completion of tedious and protracted legal and administrative formalities, 486 archaeological artifacts were handed over by the French government to the Embassy of Pakistan, Paris on July 2.
France government has handed over these artifacts to Pakistan embassy.
The total number of artifacts is 20,675 which include figurine (male, female and animal), elegant [teeth] and sophisticated pottery, seals, coins, stone tools and beads,' Buledi said.
The project of digitalization of the artifacts was started soon after establishment of digitalization center for documentation of the artifacts and archival material in the DoAM.
Private collections of artifacts are not available for everyone to see except on rare occasions.
Al-Qannour also explained that many employees of foreign companies, especially in the oil industry, visited many parts of Saudi Arabia to study their geology and natural manifestations, collected the artifacts they found and took them to national museums in their home countries.
Head of Historical Artifact Organization in Dara'a Mohammad Nasrullah pointed to severe damage on the sites in Tal al-Asha'ari, and said that the terrorists used explosives and heavy machinery to carry out excavation to unearth the artifacts.
All subjects were instructed to look at the center of a screen and follow the audible instructions to generate artifacts of various types purposefully.
This study chose Facebook as Web 2.0 artifacts for collaborative learning based on review of literatures that show the great potential of Facebook for collaborative learning.
Justice Department officials said the artifacts were illegally shipped from Israel and the United Arab Emirates to Hobby Lobby facilities in the U.S.
The NMP took custody of the artifacts and fossils for safekeeping, but Rizal officials were informed they could deposit and display these in the town provided they built a museum.