Artificial Structures

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Artificial Structures

 

a term used to designate transportation structures (on railroads, highways, and city streets) erected at crossings of rivers, ravines, mountain ridges, and intersecting roads. The term “artificial structures” is arbitrary; it came into use because of the complexity of construction of such structures as compared with the strips required for railroad lines, highways, and city streets. The most widespread artificial structures on railroad and motor-vehicle roads and streets are bridges, viaducts, overpasses, trestles, drain conduits under embankments, and drainage and diversion ditches. Artificial road structures also include tunnels, avalanche-prevention areas and snowsheds, retaining walls, and other special structures erected on mountain roads.

Artificial structures in cities include transportation tunnels and overpasses to separate traffic into various levels, as well as elevated and underground pedestrian crossings. Artificial structures on highways and in cities are mainly built of reinforced concrete. The cost of the artificial structures is 10–15 percent of the total cost of a road. For modern expressways, which intersect all crossroads on overpasses or underpasses, and for mountain roads and railroads, the cost of artificial structures reaches 30–40 percent.

E. E. GIBSHMAN

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in classic literature ?
Would it be wonderful if, under the pressure of all these difficulties, the convention should have been forced into some deviations from that artificial structure and regular symmetry which an abstract view of the subject might lead an ingenious theorist to bestow on a Constitution planned in his closet or in his imagination?
Transport Minister Janat Beishenov briefed on reconstruction on the 61 km of the road, which will be 4 and 6-lane road, will have a broader bridge, small artificial structures, water diversion facilities, parking places near markets, caravilions, sidewalks.
The project provides for the modernization of the railway section with a length of over 50 kilometers, as well as straightening parts of the track, reconstruction of artificial structures, modernization of alarm systems and telecommunications, construction of a new 10.5 kilometer segment bypassing the territory of Kyrgyzstan.
Ashcroft's spokesman said the peer had never engaged in tax evasion or tax avoidance using artificial structures and "any suggestion he has will be vigorously challenged".
This volume consists of eight reviews of topics in oceanography and marine biology: the use of visual imaging for marine biological and ecological research; the ecology of macro and microtidal estuaries; concepts, definitions, and assessment of habitat complexity for demersal marine fish; biodiversity and ecosystem consequences of the proliferation of artificial structures in the sea; the ecophysiological responses of corals to environmental stressors; the ecological impacts of marine disposal of mine tailings; the ecological roles of exploited sea cucumbers; and multidecadal spatial and temporal variation in phytoplankton diversity in south-eastern Australia.
A few topics in this issue include: iron bioavailability in the Southern Ocean, anthropogenic nutrient enrichment and blooms of harmful phytoplankton, and changing coasts: marine aliens and artificial structures. Editors are Gibson and Gordon (Scottish Association for Marine Science, Scotland), Atkinson (University Marine Biological Station, UK), and Hughes (Molecular Ecology and Fisheries Genetics Laboratory, Bangor U., UK).
Human activities that have been suggested by media reports and scientists as possible causes of some jellyfish swarms include pollution, climate change, introductions of non-native species, overfishing and the presence of artificial structures, such as oil and gas rigs.
It quotes healthcare product manufacturer Johnson & Johnson as declaring that it will always "bear our fair share of taxes" while pharmaceutical group AstraZeneca states: "We draw a distinction between tax planning using artificial structures and optimising the tax treatment of business transactions--and we engage only in the latter."
The papers discuss the ecology of cold deep sediments; the devolution of the Canada's Eastern Scotian Shelf as a case study in the integrated assessment of a large marine ecosystem; biological effects of unburnt coal in the marine environment; biofiltration and biofouling on artificial structures in Europe; aspects of the physiology, biology, and ecology of thalassinidean shrimps in relation to their burrow environment; zonation of deep biota on continental margins, the ecology of rafting organisms and community, the impact of globalization in term of non-indigenous marine species across European seas; ecology and evolution in coral reef fishes, and evaluation of the evidence for linkages between mangroves and fisheries.
Artificial structures such as groynes had prevented sand and stone being shifted naturally along the shore and there was no deposited material as a buffer between the sea and the sea wall, which was built to protect a railway rather than the homes which came later.