sphincter

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sphincter

Anatomy a ring of muscle surrounding the opening of a hollow organ or body and contracting to close it
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Sphincter

 

a ringlike muscle that constricts to close a natural orifice such as the oral or anal opening, or to narrow the passage from one part of a hollow tubular organ to another, for example, from the stomach and bile duct to the duodenum and from the bladder to the urethra. The sphincter is always in a tonic state. The orbicular muscle of the iris is a sphincter. Some sphincters consist of striated muscle and others of smooth muscle innervated by the autonomic nervous system.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

sphincter

[′sfiŋk·tər]
(anatomy)
A muscle that surrounds and functions to close an orifice.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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The outcome of artificial urinary sphincter placement after a mean 15-year follow-up in a paediatric population.
Post-prostatectomy incontinence and the artificial urinary sphincter: a long-term study of patient satisfaction and criteria for success.
Postprostatectomy urinary incontinence: the case for artificial urinary sphincter implantation.
Long-term device outcomes of artificial urinary sphincter reimplantation following prior explantation for erosion or infection.
Patient demographics Group 1 Group 2 p value N 36 82 -- Mean age (years) (range) 67 (52-82) 67 (50-82) 0.980 Cuff size (%) 3.5 cm 0 1 0.001 4.0 cm 5 39 4.5 cm 26 40 5.0 cm 5 2 Prostatectomy alone (%) 23 (64) 56 (68) 0.640 Prostatectomy + RT (%) 13 (36) 26 (32) Previous incontinence surgery (%) None 33 (92) 76 (93) 0.749 Sling 1 (3) 3 (4) AUS 2 (6) 2 (2) ProACT 0 (0) 1 (1) RT: radiation therapy; AUS: artificial urinary sphincter. Table 2.
Quality of life and continence assessment of the artificial urinary sphincter in men with minimum 3.5 years of followup.
Long-term durability and functional outcomes among patients with artificial urinary sphincters: a 10-year retrospective review from the University of Michigan.
1.: Axial and coronal computed tomography images of the pelvis demonstrating loculated perineal and scrotal fluid collections, as well as the previously placed artificial urinary sphincter. [Figure omitted]
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Obstructive procedures can be done surgically to increase intra-urethral pressure passively or actively, including retropubic, mid-urethral slings, bulking agents or artificial urinary sphincters.
Her first articles were on penile prostheses (2002) and artificial urinary sphincters (2003).