A new generation of human artificial chromosomes
for functional genomics and gene therapy.
The researchers created the artificial chromosome
by assembling synthetic strands of DNA together, which were incorporated into the genome of a multi-celled organism, like yeast.
She asserted that human artificial chromosomes
are sometimes known as 'chromosome 47' as the normal complement of chromosomes in human cells is 46, explaining that the advantage in gene therapy is that the 47th chromosome doesn't interfere with the other 46 chromosomes, unlike conventional gene therapy where an extra gene is inserted often at random into the human genome.
Additionally, we have successfully localized bindin genes (that produce species-specific vitelline membrane-binding protein) by using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and three fluorescently labeled bacterial artificial chromosome
(BAC-FISH) clones (brachyury, foxa, and foxb) from the Caltech BAC library on chromosomes from both species of strongylocentrotid sea urchins.
In addition, Hehir-Kwa et al (11) assessed 4 genome-wide copy number profiling methods for their ability to detect submicroscopic single-copy number variations, and they determined that commercially available aCGH and SNP microarray platforms performed better than an in-house tiling resolution bacterial artificial chromosome
array of 32 447 overlapping bacterial artificial chromosome
Efficient cloning of plant genomes into bacterial artificial chromosome
(BAC) libraries with larger and more uniform insert size.
Array comparative genomic hybridization with spotted bacterial artificial chromosomes
or with ligation-mediated PCR of bacterial artificial chromosomes
can narrow the intervals for reliable copy number measurements to ~1.4 Mbp (9), whereas the method of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) (10) detects mid-size deletions.
This advance also brings researchers closer to creating entirely synthetic organisms with artificial chromosomes
, he says.
Or consider biotechnology critic Luke Anderson, who begins a Crossballs debate on genetic manipulation by charging that his opponents are "techno-utopians" who want to create a world in which "those of us who don't have artificial chromosomes
" will serve "the gene-rich." He seems to think no idea is too ridiculous for biotech supporters to believe.
The main tools of GENSAT are bacterial artificial chromosomes
(BACs), which are simple loops of bacterial DNA that reproduce outside the cell.
To unravel the code the sugar beet blueprint is written in, we need what Mitch McGrath--a geneticist at the ARS Sugar Beet and Bean Research Unit at East Lansing, Michigan--calls an "alphabet soup" of genetic tools, such as ESTs (expressed sequence tags), BACs (bacterial artificial chromosomes
), and RILs (recombinant inbred lines).
The author covers a melange of miraculous efforts portending enormous promise, such as doubling lower animal life spans by altering a single gene, DNA diagnostic chips, artificial chromosomes
, in vitro fertilization (IVF), gene therapy, and germline alterations that cut off dreaded genetic disorders.