artificial languages

Also found in: Idioms.

artificial languages,

languages that are invented by one or more human beings as opposed to languages that develop naturally among peoples. Examples of artificial languages are Volapük, EsperantoEsperanto
, an artificial language introduced in 1887 and intended by its inventor, Dr. Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof (1859–1917), a Polish oculist and linguist, to ease communication between speakers of different languages. In the 20th cent.
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, and IdoIdo
, short name of Esperandido, an artificial language that is a simplified version of Esperanto. See international language.
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. See international languageinternational language,
sometimes called universal language, a language intended to be used by people of different linguistic backgrounds to facilitate communication among them and to reduce the misunderstandings and antagonisms caused by language differences.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Artificial Languages


special languages that, unlike natural languages, are constructed purposefully; they are used for performing certain functions of a natural language in data processing systems. There are two types of artificial languages: information languages and international auxiliary languages.

The idea for the creation of an international language arose in the 17th and 18th centuries as a result of the gradually decreasing international role of Latin. The initial schemes were aimed mainly at the development of a rational language, free from the logical inconsistencies of living languages and based on the logical classification of concepts. Schemes imitating patterns and material of living languages also appeared later. The first such scheme was Volapük, which was created in 1880 by the German linguist J. Schleyer. Esperanto, the only artificial language to be used on a large scale and to attract active proponents of an international language, became the best-known artificial language. A considerable number of translated and even original literary works exists in Esperanto. Of the later artificial languages, the best known are Occidental (Interlingue), created by E. de Wahl (Estonia) in 1922; Novial, created by O. Jespersen (Denmark) in 1928; and Interlingua, created by the Italian mathematician G. Peano in 1908 and the International Auxiliary Language Association in New York under the direction of A. Gode in 1950.

Artificial international language schemes may be divided into the following groups according to their structure: (1) a priori languages, based on logical or empirical classifications of concepts (Ro and Solresol); (2) mixed languages, based partly on words borrowed from various languages and partly on artificially invented words (Volapük); and (3) languages constructed primarily on the basis of an international vocabulary (Esperanto, Ido, and Interlingua).


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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