rayon

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rayon,

synthetic fibers made from cellulosecellulose,
chief constituent of the cell walls of plants. Chemically, it is a carbohydrate that is a high molecular weight polysaccharide. Raw cotton is composed of 91% pure cellulose; other important natural sources are flax, hemp, jute, straw, and wood.
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 or textiles woven from such fibers; more rayon is manufactured than any other synthetic fiber. The name was adopted (1924), in preference to "artificial silk," by the U.S. Dept. of Commerce and various commercial associations. As early as 1665 the English naturalist Robert Hooke had suggested the possibility of making artificial silk, but the first artificial textile fiber was produced in 1884 by a French scientist, Hilaire de Chardonnet, and was manufactured by him in 1889. Unpopular at first because it was too lustrous and laundered poorly, it has been steadily improved. Cellulose, originally from cotton linters but now chiefly from wood pulp, washed, bleached, and pressed into sheets, is dissolved by chemicals, then forced under pressure through minute holes in a metal cap (spinneret), emerging as filaments that unite to form one continuous strand solidified by passage through a suitable liquid or warm air. The spinning solution may be forced through a larger orifice or slit to produce a monofilament, a ribbon, or a sheet. Filaments are doubled and twisted into smooth, silklike yarns or cut into staple lengths and spun. Spun rayon can be treated to simulate wool, linen, or cotton. There are four methods of manufacturing rayon, using different materials and processes. In the nitrocellulose process developed by Chardonnet, no longer of commercial importance, cellulose is treated with nitric and sulfuric acids. In the viscose processviscose process
, method widely used for the commercial preparation of rayon. Cellulose, prepared from either wood pulp or, less commonly, cotton linters, is treated with sodium hydroxide (an alkali) and then with carbon disulfide, the resulting product being a substance called
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 discovered in 1892, it is treated with carbon disulfide, then dissolved in caustic soda, forced through a spinneret, and hardened in sulfuric acid. Viscose rayon is the most important type commercially, being used in most kinds of wearing apparel, furniture fabric, and carpets. For cuprammonium rayon, the cellulose is dissolved in copper oxide and ammonia, forced through holes larger than the intended diameter, then, by a process known as stretch spinning, is elongated and twisted under tension to yield a very fine, strong yarn used for sheer fabrics and hosiery. Rayon produced by these three methods is classified as regenerated, since the final product, like the original material, is cellulose. The fourth type, saponified acetate rayon, originated in England in 1918, is an acetate derivative of cellulose made by steeping cellulose in acetic acid, then treating it with acetic anhydride. Acetate rayon is more resistant to stains and creasing, is plasticized by heat, and requires special dyes, thus allowing two-tone effects with a single dye when acetate is combined with other fibers. An acetate filler is used to make shatterproof glass.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

rayon

[′rā‚än]
(textiles)
A fiber made from regenerated cellulose by the viscose or cuprammonium process.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

rayon

Continuous-filament yarn composed of regenerated cellulose; similar in chemical structure to natural cellulose fiber but contains shorter polymer units; usually made by the viscose process.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

rayon

1. any of a number of textile fibres made from wood pulp or other forms of cellulose
2. any fabric made from such a fibre
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
(18) In order to meet the large and ever-increasing consumer demands, former German munitions factories were re-tooled as artificial silk mills.
karastan.com 4 Harounian's Himalayan collection is handwoven in India of wool with a choice of artificial silk or pure silk accents.
During August 2009 Textile Groups contributed 1.97% of total imports in which the share of Synthetic & artificial silk yarn and Synthetic fiber were 1.01% and 0.96% respectively.
Rayon is known by the names viscose rayon and art silk (abbreviated from "artificial silk") in the textile industry.
The restructuring plan, which will be implemented in stages, began its the first stage with seven large companies including El-Mahalla, Egypt for Artificial Silk, Damietta for Spinning and Met Ghamr.
She said: "He worked on artificial silk at Courtaulds and got the chance to live in Hiroshima after the First World War."
Using a Bohlin Gemini HR Nano rheometer from Malvern Instruments, Chris Holland and Professor Fritz Vollrath, together with Dr Ann Terry and Dr David Porter, took unspun natural silk dope and compared it to artificial silk dope under shear forces similar to those encountered in a natural spinning duct.
Lewis' group has built artificial silk genes and inserted them into the common bacterium Escherichia coli to make proteins that are shorter than the natural versions.
Goncaruk cut her teeth defeating the bid to bankrupt Romanov's artificial silk operation supplying the top fashion houses in Milan.
Crick began his career in science at a young age: his first experiment, at the age of 10 or 12, was a failed attempt to create artificial silk, but he soon succeeded in making homemade explosives.
Army, are spinning artificial silk modeled after Golden Orb dragline.