Artiodactyla

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Related to Artiodactyls: Artiodactyla, Perissodactyls

Artiodactyla

[‚ärd·ē·ō′dak·tə·lə]
(vertebrate zoology)
An order of terrestrial, herbivorous mammals characterized by having an even number of toes and by having the main limb axes pass between the third and fourth toes.

Artiodactyla

 

an order of mammals. Each foot has two or four digits; the third and fourth digits are most highly developed because they bear most of the body weight. The toes are enclosed in horny caps, or hooves. The molars are alveolar or tuberculate and are adapted for grinding tough vegetable food. The clavicle is absent. Unlike perissodactyls, the third trochanter of the femur is absent. Artiodactyls are vegetarians. The stomach is most often compound, with several compartments, and is adapted for digesting coarse fodder.

There are two suborders of artiodactyls: Nonruminantia and Ruminantia. The suborder Nonruminantia comprises the families Hippopotamidae and Suidae. The Ruminantia embrace six families: Camelidae, Tragulidae, Cervidae, Antilocapridae, Bovidae, and Giraffidae. The Camelidae are sometimes regarded as the separate suborder Tylopoda or as a separate order. Most agricultural animals, including swine, camels, cattle, sheep, and goats, are artiodactyls.

REFERENCES

Sokolov, I.I. Kopytnye zveri (Otriady Perissodactyla i Artiodactyla). Moscow-Leningrad, 1959, (Fauna SSSR: Mlekopitaiushchie, vol. 1, part 3.)
Mlekopitaiushchie Sovetskogo Soiuza, vol. 1. Edited by V. G. Geptner and N. P. Naumov. Moscow, 1961.

I. I. SOKOLOV

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The influence of exotic artiodactyls on white-tailed deer production and survival.
2]) and would be good sources of calcium and magnesium, thus possibly functioning as rodent "licks" similar to those reported by Jones & Hanson (1985) and Peterson (1955) for artiodactyls.
They are specific parasites of certain artiodactyls, rodents, or humans, and also have their own host species of ramshorn snail (Planorbidae), most of them with geographically restricted distributions.
Similarly, the expansion of the artiodactyls and decline of the perissodactyls in the late Cenozoic appear to have been mediated by climatic and resulting vegetational changes rather than by direct competition (Janis 1989).
The Late Miocene artiodactyls in the Dhok Pathan type locality of the Dhok Pathan Formation, the Middle Siwaliks, Pakistan.
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With regard to artiodactyls, Gazella borbonica and Gazelospira torticornis, characteristic of the Middle Villafranchian assemblages, are first recorded in the Iberian Peninsula in localities such as La Puebla de Almoradier, Pozo de Piedrabuena, el Rincon-1 and Las Higueruelas (Alberdi et al.
8 for many species of artiodactyls (Lomolino 2005) and for mammals <1 kg body mass isolated in forest islands in Denmark for 175 years.
Some 30 new rodents, carnivores, primates and artiodactyls (the group that includes sheep, goats, camels, pigs, cows, deer, giraffes and antelopes, among others) appeared on the scene.
Initial findings of the virus' virulence and potential for transmission between equids and artiodactyls were alarming and provided the impetus for experimental studies, which showed that disease could be induced in members of an additional 8 mammalian taxa: dogs, cats, horses, mice, hamsters, pigs, goats, and marmosets (4-6).