arts and crafts

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arts and crafts,

term for that general field of applied design in which hand fabrication is dominant. The term was coined in England in the late 19th cent. as a label for the then-current movement directed toward the revivifying of the decorative arts. The chief influence behind this movement was William MorrisMorris, William,
1834–96, English poet, artist, craftsman, designer, social reformer, and printer. He has long been considered one of the great Victorians and has been called the greatest English designer of the 19th cent.
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. By the mid-19th cent., factory processes had almost entirely driven artisans from their ancient trades and threatened to obliterate the techniques they used to produce beautiful objects of utility. The Gothic revivalGothic revival,
term designating a return to the building styles of the Middle Ages. Although the Gothic revival was practiced throughout Europe, it attained its greatest importance in the United States and England.
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, however, had brought into existence a great body of knowledge concerning the arts of the Middle Ages, and Morris, together with the Pre-RaphaelitePre-Raphaelites
, brotherhood of English painters and poets formed in 1848 in protest against what they saw as the low standards and decadence of British art. The principal founders were D. G. Rossetti, W.
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 painters and a small group of architects and designers, returned to these arts as a rich source of inspiration.

The pupils and followers of Morris multiplied, and proficient artisans developed. Their methods aimed at a practical demonstration not only of Morris's aesthetic creed but also of his ideas concerning socialism and the moral need for integrating beauty with the accessories of daily life. The aesthetic and political aspects of the arts and crafts movement influenced the development of modernism, particularly as they were later reflected in the core philosophy of the BauhausBauhaus
, artists' collective and school of art and architecture in Germany (1919–33). The Bauhaus revolutionized art training by combining the teaching of classic arts with the study of crafts.
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. The revival of folk arts has continued to prosper in some quarters, especially in remote communities and among Native Americans of the Southwest and the Eskimos (see North American Native ArtNorth American Native art,
diverse traditional arts of Native North Americans. In recent years Native American arts have become commodities collected and marketed by nonindigenous Americans and Europeans.
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).

A less aestheticized version of the arts and crafts movement was important in the United States, where it spread from England and flourished from the late 19th cent. to about 1915. It was prominent in American architecture and design, notably in the buildings and interiors of Greene and GreeneGreene and Greene,
architectural firm working in the American arts and crafts style, formed by the brothers Charles Sumner Greene, 1868–1957, and Henry Mather Greene, 1870–1954, both b. Brighton (now part of Cincinnati), Ohio.
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 and in the "mission-style" oak furniture of Gustav StickleyStickley, Gustav,
1858–1942, American furniture designer, b. Osceola, Wis. Probably the best-known American associated with the arts and crafts movement, Stickley ran a Binghamton, N.Y., chair factory in the 1880s.
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 (1858–1942) and his contemporaries. The movement's precepts were also applied to ceramics, glassware, utensils, and other objects of American daily life. The arts and crafts movement also spread to continental Europe, where it was quite influential during the late 19th and early 20th cent.

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References in periodicals archive ?
Workshops designed to introduce children and adults to the world of arts and crafts have begun in Yarm.
Here from Compton Verney, the art gallery and stately home in Warwickshire, it features the country's key Arts and Crafts houses.
You Can Make Money from Your Arts and Crafts: The Arts & Crafts Marketing Book by Steve and Cindy Long, available from Storey's How-To Books for Country Living (address above).
ISLAMABAD -- A three-day Jashan-e-Baharan music and art festival would be started here at Arts and Crafts Village, Islamabad on Friday.
Time to time, PASI also organizes exhibitions abroad to promote the Omani Arts and crafts internationally .
The arts and crafts shop is the result of a partnership between Stockton Council's Arts Development and the Adult Learning Disability Service.
If I seem to be over-critical of the V&A exhibition it is because, with its unique and extensive holdings and its reputation for scholarship, the museum is the primary institution in the world capable of mounting the best Arts and Crafts exhibition ever held, and it has failed.
DeLemos believed in "Art for Life's Sake" as opposed to "Art for Art's Sake." This democratic perspective included a belief in the moral dimensions of design and the anti-Modernist values of the Arts and Crafts Movement.
* Selling Arts and Crafts by Mail Order, by Allan Smith, Success Publishing, 2812 Bayonne Drive, Box 30965, Palm Beach Gardens FL 33420.
A HANDMADE winter wonderland of festive arts and crafts was on display at a massive arts market staged in the city.
A FOUR-DAY festival of arts and crafts will be held in Berwick this weekend.
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