Aruz

Aruz

 

(or arud), a system of versification that originated in Arabic poetry and spread to several countries of the Near and Middle East. The theory of aruz, first propounded in the works of the Arab philologist Khalil ibn Ahmad (eighth century), was elaborated by the later Persian theoreticians Rashid Watwata, Shams-e Qais Rāzi, and others. In aruz, the specific alternation of long and short syllables according to the law of Arabic phonetics is the rhythm-creating element in a poem. However, the system of aruz soon began to be used not only in languages with a vocalic structure similar to that of Arabic (Farsi), but also in the Turkic languages, where the vowels do not differ in length. A short syllable in aruz (“is the arbitrary symbol) is an open one with a short vowel, and a long syllable (-) is an open one with a long vowel; a 1½ syllable (--) is a closed one with a short vowel. A combination of long and short syllables forms a foot, the main element of a verse. There are eight basic feet: (1)---- (2)----(3)----(4)----(5)----(6)----- (7)----- (8)----. Different combinations of them produce 19 basic meters, seven with equal feet and 12 with varying feet. But because any basic foot of each meter can undergo a variety of changes (zihafa), the number of metric variants is substantially higher. Aruz remained in Arabic, Persian-Tadzhiki, and several Turkic literatures as the only system of versification until the 20th century, when attempts were made to introduce new meters (free verse, syllabic-tonic, and so forth).

REFERENCES

Krymskii, A. Arabskaia literatura ν ocherkakh i obraztsakh. Moscow, 1911.
Korsh, F. Drevneishii narodnyi stikh turetskikh piemen. St. Petersburg, 1909.
Vahid Tabrizi. Jam’-imukhtasar: Traktat o poetike. Moscow, 1959.
Bloch, A. Vers und Sprache im Altarabischen. Basel, 1946.
Weil, G. Grundriss und System der altarabischen Metren. Wiesbaden, 1958.
Khanlari Parviz Natal. Tahqiqa antaqadi dar aruza farsi. Tehran, 1327 A.H. (1948).

N. B. KONDYREVA

References in periodicals archive ?
Perodua's Advanced Safety Assist 2.0 (ASA 2.0*) suite of driver assistance safety systems, which debuted on the Aruz seven-seater SUV in January, now enters the Axia range with the AV variant, making it the most affordable car in Malaysia with such a feature.
Auto Business News-January 16, 2019--Daihatsu Malaysia to launch Aruz
M2 EQUITYBITES-January 16, 2019--Daihatsu Malaysia to launch Aruz
Aruz provides an introductory essay that reviews some of the material discussed in the republished articles, highlights some recent studies, and summarizes the importance of Dr.
For example, there are numerous parameters of mugham as performed today that have retained their pre-Soviet integrity and are not reflected in Hajibeyli's or Ismayilov's systems: structural vitality of microtones, aruz meters, transitions between modes through techniques such as gezishme ("walking"), not to mention the interpretive and imaginative states that mugham creativity involves in the moment of performance.
Mara Dolores Aruz, the Programs manager in Honduras, today explained at the General Assembly in Santo Domingo that the Program serves 5.7 million people in eight of the regions countries: Argentina, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, and Paraguay.
Puis il a corrige les <<fautes>> d'interpretation repercutees dans les transcriptions anterieures en appliquant strictement les regles de la metrique poetique ('aruz).
(32) BIETAK, Manfred, "Minoan Artists at the Court of Avaris (Tell el Daba)", en ARUZ, Joan, BENZEL, Keith y EVANS, John, (eds.), Beyond Babylon.
On Tuesday evening, according to several accounts on social media and sources who spoke to The Daily Star, fighting broke out between the two sides in the Qardaha region, both on the outskirts of the town and in the village of Ain Aruz.
Suleyman Karaman, the director general of the Turkish Railways Administration (TCDD), said Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan had given instructions, and the TCDD was working to launch the high-speed train service between Ankara and the central city of Konya till Seb-i Aruz (Wedding Night) ceremonies on December 17, 2010.