Arvid Carlsson


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Carlsson, Arvid,

1923–2018, Swedish pharmacologist, grad. Univ. of Lund, Sweden, (M.D., Ph.D., 1951). Carlsson was a professor at the Univ. of Lund (1951–59) and at the Univ. of Gothenburg, Sweden (1959–89). In 2000 he, Paul GreengardGreengard, Paul,
1925–2019, American neuroscientist, b. New York City, Ph.D. Johns Hopkins, 1953. Greengard was on the staff at Geigy Research Laboratories (1959–67) and a professor at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine (1961–70) and Yale (1968–83).
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, and Eric KandelKandel, Eric Richard,
1929–, American neurobiologist, b., Vienna, Austria, M.D. New York Univ., 1956. Kandel was at the Harvard Medical School (1960–65) and New York Univ. (1965–74) before joining the faculty at Columbia in 1974.
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 were awarded the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system. The nerve cells in the human brain are linked by a complex network of nerve processes, with messages being transmitted via various chemical transmitters, or neurotransmittersneurotransmitter,
chemical that transmits information across the junction (synapse) that separates one nerve cell (neuron) from another nerve cell or a muscle. Neurotransmitters are stored in the nerve cell's bulbous end (axon).
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, not electricity as was believed formerly. Carlsson was cited for discovering that dopaminedopamine
, one of the intermediate substances in the biosynthesis of epinephrine and norepinephrine. See catecholamine.
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 is a neurotransmitter and that it is critical to movement control. He proposed that a lack of dopamine in certain parts of the brain causes Parkinson's diseaseParkinson's disease
or Parkinsonism,
degenerative brain disorder first described by the English surgeon James Parkinson in 1817. When there is no known cause, the disease usually appears after age 40 and is referred to as Parkinson's disease; a number of genes have
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 and also showed that l-dopal-dopa
, drug used to alleviate some of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, particularly trembling, rigidity, and slow movements; the drug is also called levodopa. Parkinson's disease results when the concentration of dopamine in the brain is depleted (see catecholamine).
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 might treat the disease. Carlsson's later research led to the development of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a class of antidepressantsantidepressant,
any of a wide range of drugs used to treat psychic depression. They are given to elevate mood, counter suicidal thoughts, and increase the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
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.
References in periodicals archive ?
Discovered in 1958 by Arvid Carlsson and Nils-Ake Hillarp at the National Heart Institute of Sweden, dopamine, or otherwise known as the feel-good hormone, plays a role in pleasure and is central to the mechanism of behavior change in response to getting rewards.
In October 2000, Swedish scientist Dr Arvid Carlsson won the Nobel Prize in medicine for his work on the neurotransmitter dopamine and its effects on Parkinson's disease.
Este minucioso trabajo fue destacado, finalmente, mediante la concesion a Kandel del Premio Nobel de Fisiologia o Medicina en 2000, junto con Arvid Carlsson y Paul Greengard, por sus descubrimientos relacionados con "la transduccion de senales en el sistema nervioso".
Arvid Carlsson of Sweden has said that fluoridation is not considered a proper health-care measure in his country.
This teaching method garnered international educational awards (Lundbeck Neuroscience Education Award) and has been lauded by Nobel Laureate Arvid Carlsson.