Asa Gray

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Gray, Asa,

1810–88, one of America's leading botanists and taxonomists, b. Oneida co., N.Y. As professor of natural history at Harvard from 1842, he was the teacher of many eminent botanists. Through his voluminous writings in periodicals and his well-known textbooks, he helped popularize the study of botany. With John TorreyTorrey, John,
1796–1873, American botanist and chemist, b. New York City, M.D. College of Physicians and Surgeons, 1818. He was professor of chemistry (1827–55) at his alma mater and professor of chemistry and natural history (1830–54) at Princeton.
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 he explored the W United States and helped to revise the taxonomic procedure of LinnaeusLinnaeus, Carolus
, 1707–78, Swedish botanist and taxonomist, considered the founder of the binomial system of nomenclature and the originator of modern scientific classification of plants and animals. He studied botany and medicine and taught both at Uppsala.
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 on the basis of a more natural classification. Gray's Manual of Botany was edited by M. L. FernaldFernald, Merritt Lyndon
, 1873–1950, American botanist, b. Orono, Maine, grad. Harvard, 1897. He taught at Harvard (1902–49) and was director of the Gray Herbarium there from 1937. Fernald was the editor (with Benjamin L.
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 (8th centennial ed. 1950); it is a standard reference work for the flora of the United States E of the Rocky Mts. He initiated the quarterly Gray Herbarium Card Index, listing all the vascular plants of the Western Hemisphere described since 1873. Among his many other writings, which are still highly valued, are Structural Botany (6th ed. 1879) and The Elements of Botany (1887).


See his letters (ed. by J. L. Gray, 1893, repr. 1973); biography by A. H. Dupree (1968).

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Gray, Asa


Born Nov. 18, 1810, in Paris; died Jan. 30, 1888, in Cambridge, Mass. American botanist.

Gray became a professor at Harvard University in 1842 and created one of the world’s richest herbaria there. He was one of the most important investigators of the flora of North America and author of a number of textbooks and guides in the field of botany. Together with C. Lyell, he persuaded C. Darwin (1858) to hasten publication of his theory of the origin of species. He participated actively in the dissemination and defense of Darwin’s ideas.


Dupree, A. H. Asa Gray: 1810–1888. Cambridge (Massachusetts). 1959.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Gray, Asa

(1810–88) botanist; born in Sauquoit, N.Y. He received his M.D. in 1831, but relinquished medicine after a year's practice to pursue his interest in botany. He taught high school science in Utica, N.Y. (1832–35), making botanical expeditions to southern New York and New Jersey during his summers. He moved to New York City to join his friend and fellow botanist John Torrey (1836), published his first textbook, Elements of Botany (1836), and collaborated with Torrey to publish the first two (and only) volumes of their projected multivolume Flora of North America (1838, 1843). He accepted a position to be professor of botany at the new University of Michigan; when this did not materialize due to the institution's financial difficulties, he relocated to Harvard (1842–73). There he created Harvard's department of botany and brought it to international prominence, while educating many students who became the next generation's leaders in plant science. And as the author of over 350 books, monographs, and papers, he both popularized and professionalized the study of botany in America. By replacing the classical rigid Linnaean system with a more natural classification of plants by type specimen, Gray became the leading taxonomic botanist in the U.S.A. Charles Darwin so admired Gray's work that he shared his theory of natural selection in a letter to Gray (1857) before the theory was published; while Gray had some reservations about the theory, he became an ardent Darwinist, championing natural selection and refuting ideas that Darwinism could not coexist with Protestant Christianity. After retirement, Gray continued to take charge of his specimen collection in Harvard's Gray Herbarium. Among his many writings is the classical treatise, Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States (1848, still known as "Gray's Manual.")
The Cambridge Dictionary of American Biography, by John S. Bowman. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1995. Reproduced with permission.
References in periodicals archive ?
Typification of the Hawaiian Plants described by Asa Gray from the Wilkes Expedition Collections, and an enumeration of other Hawaiian collections.
(15) Asa Gray in particular said he saw no conflict between the traditional story of creation, as he said in print and in public, but he did see a potential conflict between Darwin's idea of selection and what he called "the fortuitous." (16)
The great strides made by Darwin's fellow naturalists in astronomy and the Earth sciences encouraged in him the view that "the more we know of the fixed laws of nature the more incredible do miracles become." (2) The fact that the variations on which natural selection worked appeared randomly, and could not be immediately correlated with a prospective use, predisposed him against the view proposed by Asa Gray that novel variations were micro-managed by the deity.
Letter to Asa Gray. Available online at:
Hoeveler describes Darwin's ideas and life and the perceptions of such as Louis Agassiz, Asa Gray, Charles Hodge, James McCosh, Henry Ward Beecher, John Bascom, William Garland Sumner, Lester Frank Ward, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Eliza Burt Gamble, Thorstein Veblen, Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., William James and John Dewey.