plant propagation

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Plant propagation

The deliberate, directed reproduction of plants using plant cells, tissues, or organs. Asexual propagation, also called vegetative propagation, is accomplished by taking cuttings, by grafting or budding, by layering, by division of plants, or by separation of specialized structures such as tubers, rhizomes, or bulbs. This method of propagation is used in agriculture, in scientific research, and in professional and recreational gardening. It has a number of advantages over seed propagation: it retains the genetic constitution of the plant type almost completely; it is faster than seed propagation; it may allow elimination of the nonfruiting, juvenile phase of the plant's life; it preserves unique, especially productive, or esthetically desirable plant forms; and it allows plants with roots well adapted for growth on poor soils to be combined with tops that produce superior fruits, nuts, or other products. See Breeding (plant), Reproduction (plant)

Tissue cultures and protoplast cultures are among the techniques that have been investigated for plant propagation; the success of a specific technique depends on a number of factors. Practical applications of such methods include the clonal propagation of desirable phenotypes and the commercial production of virus-free plants.

Plant tissue cultures are initiated by excising tissue containing nucleated cells and placing it on an enriched sterile culture medium. The response of a plant tissue to a culture medium depends on a number of factors: plant species, source of tissue, chronological age and physiological state of the tissue, ingredients of the culture medium, and physical culturing conditions, such as temperature, photoperiod, and aeration.

Though technically more demanding, successful culture of plant protoplasts involves the same basic principles as plant tissue culture. Empirical methods are used to determine detailed techniques for individual species; such factors as plant species, tissue source, age, culture medium, and physical culture conditions have to be considered. See Plant cell

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Bioscience. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

plant propagation

[′plant ‚präp·ə‚gā·shən]
(botany)
The deliberate, directed reproduction of plants using seeds or spores (sexual propagation), or using vegetative cells, tissues, or organs (asexual reproduction).
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Asexual propagation is especially useful to maintain the genetic constitution of a clone throughout generations.
Based in these difficulties found as to the sexual propagation, several works ought to obtain an adequate protocol for seedling production through asexual propagation, such as through cuttings (Sasso et al., 2010b, Casagrande JR et al., 2000) and air layering (Danner et al., 2006, Cassol et al., 2015), which presented yet unsatisfactory results, and through grafting (Sasso et al.
Asexual propagation of species in the genus Rubus is virtually performed via tissue culture (VILLA et al., 2008) and stem (VILLA et al., 2003) and root cuttings due to the simplicity of processing and handling cuttings and the presence of large quantities of thorns on stems (DIAS et al., 2011).
He shared that trials on propagation by seeds and trials using asexual propagation are being conducted.
Chapter topics include Sexual Propagation: Why and How, and Asexual Propagation. Part Three covers The Crops.
Mudge, Janick, Scofield, and Goldschmidt (2009) explained that woody plant species required asexual propagation due to their heterozygous nature.
Saeed, "Species and size-related trends in asexual propagation of commercially important species of tropical sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea)," Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, vol.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate asexual propagation of olive cultivars through air layering.
Rooting of stem cuttings is the most easiest and commonly used asexual propagation method in jojoba 4,9.
43-61) review the cellular mechanisms controlling the overlapping processes of regeneration and asexual propagation in botryl-lid ascidians.
Specific adaptations of organs allow asexual propagation from essentially all vegetative parts of the plant: leaves, stems, buds, roots, and even single cells.