(a) Amylolytic activity by Aspergillus versicolor
; (b) amylolytic activity by Penicillium sp.
Based on literature survey, mycotoxins most often synthesized by the above mentioned species of fungi were selected for analysis: sterigmatocystin (Aspergillus versicolor) and roquefortine C (Penicillium chrysogenum) [33,40,42,43].
Malt extract agar media (BTL, Poland) with mycelium which grew thereon (initial mixture of fungi and pure cultures of Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillium chrysogenum) were subjected to pasteurization (85[degrees]C, 30 min) and comminution with a sterile scalpel.
On Code Outer Code 1st 1st 2nd Alternaria alternata 1 Aspergillus flavo Aspergillus fumigatus 1 Aspergillus nidulans Aspergillus niger 1 1 Aspergillus terreus 8 7 Aspergillus versicolor
4 Eurotium amstelodami 1 Eurotium repens 1 Paecilomyces variotii 1 Penicillium chrysogenum 2 Penicillium expansum 2 Saccharomycetaceae 1 Mycelia sterilia hyaline 1 Total CFU 4 16 12 Control Total 1st 2nd Alternaria alternata 1 Aspergillus flavo 1 1 Aspergillus fumigatus 1 Aspergillus nidulans 1 1 Aspergillus niger 2 Aspergillus terreus 1 16 Aspergillus versicolor
1 5 Eurotium amstelodami 1 Eurotium repens 1 Paecilomyces variotii 1 Penicillium chrysogenum 2 Penicillium expansum 2 Saccharomycetaceae 1 Mycelia sterilia hyaline 1 Total CFU 3 1 36 Table 2: 16S rDNA-based identification of bacterial isolates.
In this study, we investigated the inflammatory responses of mouse RAW264.7 macrophages after exposure to six indoor air microbes (Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium spinulosum, Stachybotrys chartarum, Bacillus cereus, Mycobacterium terrae, and Pseudomonas fluorescens) alone and together with the actlnomycete Streptomyces californicus.
The aim of this study was to examine the interaction between indoor air microbes in mouse RAW264.7 macrophages during simultaneous exposure to the gram-positive bacteria Streptomyces californicus together with Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium spinulosum, Sta.
We studied the fungi Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium spinulosum, and Stachybotrys chartarum and the bacteria Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Streptomyces californicus for their cytotoxicity and ability to stimulate the production of inflammatory mediators in mouse RAW264.7 and human 28SC macrophage cell lines and in the human A549 lung epithelial cell line in 24-hr exposure to [10.sup.5], [10.sup.6], and [10.sup.7] microbes/mL.
Penicillium spinulosum is considered a generally nontoxic species, whereas Aspergillus versicolor is both a common toxin producer and an indicator of mold problems in a building (Samson et al.
The fungus Penicillium spinulosum is regularly found in both normal and water-damaged indoor environments, whereas the fungi Stachybotrys chartarum and Aspergillus versicolor
tend to accompany only heavy indoor water damage.