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(woodruff), a genus of annual and perennial herbs and subshrubs of the family Rubiaceae. The stems are square and smooth; the leaves are whorled or, rarely, opposite. The small, usually tetramerous flowers are most commonly in a panicle or head. The fruit is dry and separates into two sections.

There are about 90 species (according to other data, as many as 200), distributed in Eurasia, primarily in the Mediterranean. The USSR has 70 species. A. odorata (or Galium odoratum) is found in broad-leaved and mixed forests and in ravines. Dyer’s woodruff tinctoria), which contains a dye substance in its roots, grows in the European USSR and in the southern part of Western Siberia in meadows, on steppe slopes, and in pine forests. Many species are nectar-bearers. Several species, including A. azurea (or A. orientalis) and Asperula nítida, are cultivated as ornamentals. Some species, for example, A. odorata, are frequently included in the genus Galium.


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% CFE 2007 Zygochlamys patagonica 54.57 54.57 Porifera 6.30 60.87 Ctenodiscus australis 6.11 66.98 Austrocidciris canaliculata 5.94 72.92 Ophiactis asperula 5.78 78.70 Flabellum curvatum 4.50 83.20 Asteriidae 4.36 87.56 Actinostola crassicornis 4.35 91.92 IFE 2007 Zygochlamys patagonica 44.79 44.79 Porifera 13.17 57.96 Ophiacantha vivipara 6.62 64.58 Actinostola crassicornis 6.30 70.88 Asteriidae 6.22 77.10 Flabellum curvatum 4.18 81.28 Ctenodiscus australis 3.87 85.15 Fusitriton magellanicus 2.86 88.00 Ophiactis asperula 2.07 90.08 TABLE 2.
Only five of these 31 plant species (16%) had flowers showing characteristics associated with ornithophily: Ruellia asperula Lindau (Acanthaceae), Melocactus zehntneri (Britton & Rose) Luetzelb., Tacinga inamoena (K.
carica [I.sup.12] Vitex agnus-castus [I.sup.13] Paliurus spina-cristi [I.sup.12] [II.sup.+1-22] Differential species of Onosmaetalia(ea) frutescentis Onosma frutescens [II.sup.+2] Cheilanthes fragrans Silene leptoclada (End.) Valantia hispida Umbilicus horizontalis Characteristic species of Arabis davisii-Alkanna oreodoxa community Alkanna oreodoxa (End.) Kundmannia anatolica (End.) Arabis davisii (End.) Ptilostemon chamaepeuce [I.sup.+3] Phagnalon graecum Asperula serotina (End.) Helichrysum chasmolycicum (End.) Rosularia globulariifolia (End.) Dianthus elegans var.
Asclepias asperula (Decne.) Woodson, 2464, 2465, 4687; (TEX 192109).
-- -- -- OPHIUROIDEA Gorgonocephalus chilensis 1.74/2.15 -- -- Ophiacanta vivopara 7.25/9.92 6.58/10.58 11.65/11.09 Ophiactis asperula 5.22/7.74 4.45/7.12 11.44/7.19 Ophiuroglypha lymanii 1.10/4.79 0.10/3.44 0.72/6.15
Flacourtiaceae Indeterminada Selaginellaceae Selaginella asperula Spring.
La "Asperula cynanchica L." de las calizas orensanas (Gimenez de Azcarate & Amigo, 1996: 31s) y A.
Dentro de la asociacion se pueden diferenciar las subasociaciones de Cheilanthes myriophylla y de Bulbostylis asperula (Tablas 3 y 6).
In the lower sectors of the Rhine, increasing hydromorphy and acidity of the substrates account for the fact that some species are progressively disappearing (Alnus incana, Cornus mas, Daphne mezereum, Populus nigra, Tilia platyphyllos, Euphorbia amygdaloides, and Helleborus foetidus) while others are appearing (Salix viminalis, Allium scorodoprasum, Asperula odorata, and Maianthemum bifolium).
taurica, Asperula supina, Carex humilis, Cytisus hir sutus subsp.
[Texas amsonia] ASCLEPIADACEAE Asclepias asperula (Decne.) B.
SC432 h 20 Trifolium minus r 2 Aegopogon cenchroides r 5 5 Rumex acetosella + Especies de otros Sintaxones Orden Cupheo--Dodonaetalia viscosae Cuphea serpyllifolia r 33 40 52 4 Anthoxanthum odoratum r 50 7 10 30 Oxalis corniculata r 1 10 6 3 Borreria anthospermoides r 20 15 16 12 Setaria geniculata r 1 1 2 10 Polygalapaniculata 0.5 Dodonaea viscosa + Especies de la vegetacion Regional Pteridium aquilinum 0.3 7 Conmelinaceae SC 585 1 Asplenium praemorsum 1 Rumex acetosella + Mariscus flabelliformis 1 Leptodontium SC 415 Bulbostylis asperula 1 Baccharis rupicola Pleopeltis macrocarpa 1 Stevia lucida Echeveria bicolor 1 Achyrocline sp.