Assurbanipal


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Assurbanipal

(ä'so͝orbä`nēpäl) or

Ashurbanipal

(ä`sho͝or–), d. 626? B.C., king of ancient Assyria (669–633 B.C.), son and successor of Esar-HaddonEsar-Haddon
, king of ancient Assyria (681–668 B.C.), son of Sennacherib. Immediately upon ascending the throne he had to put down serious revolts and defeat the Chaldaeans. He was successful in both enterprises.
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. The last of the great kings of Assyria, he drove TaharkaTaharka
or Tirhakah
, d. 663 B.C., king of ancient Egypt, last ruler of the XXV dynasty; son of Piankhi. Before he was king, he led the Egyptians against Sennacherib, who disastrously defeated him. Seizing (688 B.C.
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 out of Egypt and firmly established NechoNecho
, fl. 670 B.C., lord of Saïs, Egypt. He was confirmed in his holding after the Assyrian conquest in 670; he was later taken to Nineveh in chains for plotting to revolt but was pardoned and restored. He probably fell opposing (663) the Nubian reconquest under Tanutamon.
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 in power there only to have Necho's son PsamtikPsamtik
, Lat. Psammetichus, d. 609 B.C., king of ancient Egypt, founder of the XXVI dynasty. When his father, Necho, lord of Saïs under the Assyrians, was defeated and killed (663 B.C.
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 revolt in 660 B.C. and wrest Egypt permanently from Assyria. The uprising took place during a campaign by Assurbanipal against the Elamites and Chaldaeans. His brother, in command at Babylon, also headed a serious revolt by the enemies of the king. This insurgence was suppressed, though not without difficulty, and in retaliation, Assurbanipal took Babylon and slaughtered (648 B.C.) many of the inhabitants. He then defeated Elam and sacked Susa; Elamite power disappeared. Under Assurbanipal, Assyria reached the height of sumptuous living. The famous lion-hunt reliefs in the royal palace at Nineveh date from his reign and are among the finest examples of ancient sculpture. Assurbanipal was interested in learning; excavations at Nineveh have uncovered 22,000 clay tablets from his library—the chief sources of knowledge of ancient Mesopotamia. Among the tablets were found copies of the Babylonian flood and creation stories as well as historical and scientific literature. His reign ended the greatness of the empire (although two of his sons ruled briefly after his death), and Assyria succumbed to the Medes and the Persians only a few years later. His great expenditures in wars to preserve the state contributed somewhat to its collapse. Assurbanipal is probably the Asnappar or Osnapper of Ezra 4.10. He is identified with, but only faintly resembles, the SardanapalusSardanapalus
, in the Persica of Ctesias, an Assyrian monarch who lived in great luxury. He was besieged in Nineveh by the Medes for two years, at the end of which time he set fire to his palace and burned himself and his court to death. Byron wrote a tragedy on the theme.
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 of the Greeks.
References in periodicals archive ?
In order to achieve an understanding of the archetypal librarian, this paper compares three periods: (1) pre-Alexandrian Mesopotamian information institutions, focusing on the seventh century BCE Library of Assurbanipal (considered by many scholars to be the first universal or national library), (2) the Great Library of Alexandria (hereafter referred to as "the Library"), and (3) the twenty-first century American academic library.
During 14 years of the reigns of Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal, 16 eclipses were visible from Mesopotamia, and 8 of them required the coronation of a substitute king.
which may or may not refer to a worshiper of Ahura Mazda; (46) even less certain is the alleged reference to Ahura Mazda in the name DAssara DMazas occurring on tablets of the Assyrian king Assurbanipal (685-627 b.
This sequence agrees with the order of gods on a circular table from the Library of Assurbanipal and many other so-called astrolabes: the stars of Enlil lie at the center of the disc, those of Anu surround them, and those of Ea form the outskirts.
The relevant passage is best preserved in the Tayinat exemplar of Esarhaddon's Succession Treaty, not published in time for the use of the authors: "You will guard like your god this sealed tablet of the great ruler on which is written the ade of Assurbanipal, the great crown prince designate, the son of Esarhaddon, king of Assyria, your lord, which is sealed with the seal of ASSur, king of the gods, and which is set up before you" (SAA 2 6: 407-9; see now JCS 64 113).
Balogh argued that the passage as a whole "presupposes the invasion of Egypt in 671 by Esarhaddon and seems to fit particularly well the early years of Assurbanipal.
For example, the chief scribe Issar-sumu-eres, who served both Esarhaddon and his son Assurbanipal, writes of a lunar-solar opposition on the fifteenth:
For an Arab treaty with the Neo-Assyrian ruler Assurbanipal, see Neo-Assyrian Treaties and Loyalty Oaths, ed.
The Babylonian Correspondence of Esarhaddon and the Letters of Assurbanipal and Sin-garru-ifikun from Northern and Central Babylonia.
They date as late as the reigns of Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, and Assurbanipal.
Assurbanipal did not build both "a significant library and museum" (p.
On that basis, Esarhaddon employed the treaty as a "loyalty oath" (ade) (23) to secure the succession of Assurbanipal as his own heir (669 B.