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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a man with a constitution characterized by tall-ness, leanness, a long neck, a longitudinally extended skull, and a narrow and sharply outlined face. The German scientist E. Kretschmer linked the asthenic type with specific temperamental and character traits—an abnormal sensitivity coupled with coldness, nervousness and awkwardness, un-sociableness, and a tendency to “withdraw into oneself.” Today this notion of links between the asthenic constitution and the aforementioned character traits is under critical review, as is Kretschmer’s whole theory.


Kretschmer, E. Stroenie tela i kharakter. Moscow-Petrograd, 1924. (Translated from German.)


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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