astrocyte

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Related to Astrocytes: microglia, Oligodendrocytes

astrocyte

[′as·trə‚sīt]
(neuroscience)
A star-shaped cell; specifically, a neuroglial cell.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Rowitch, "Functional diversity of astrocytes in neural circuit regulation," Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol.
Compared to microglia, there are few reports concerning the effects of isoflavones on astrocytes; genistein suppresses neuroinflammatory changes induced by hemolysate [26] or amyloid [beta] [27].
We summarize the current knowledge on the risk factors for ICH and discuss how astrocytes could contribute to limit brain damage caused by ICH.
Irisin Protected Neuron in Cultures against A [beta]-Induced Cell Viability Loss by Modulating Astrocytes. First, we set up cultures of hippocampal astrocytes and neurons, as shown in Figure 1(a).
During early gestation, NSCs divide symmetrically to expand their own pool, and then switch to asymmetric divisions to give rise to each cell type: (1) NSCs acquire the potential to differentiate into neurons at mid-gestation, (2) they obtain the gliogenic capacity to generate astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in the late-gestation to perinatal periods.
The brain's neurons rely on speedy electrical signals to communicate throughout the brain and release neurotransmitters, but astrocytes instead generate signals of calcium and release substances known as gliotransmitters, some of them chemically similar to neurotransmitters.
'We are looking at the fundamental biology of how astrocytes function, but perhaps have discovered a new target for someday intervening in neurodegenerative diseases with novel therapeutics,' says Jeffrey Rothstein, M.D., Ph.D., the John W.
In human beings, this occurs after the fourth month of pregnancy, when the production of nerve cells tends to finish and that of astrocytes to increase.
Using mice deficient in nestin, a protein that is a component of the part of the cytoskeleton known as intermediate filaments or nanofilaments, the research team showed that nestin produced in astrocytes has an important role in inhibiting neuronal differentiation.
A study conducted by Johns Hopkins Medicine scientists have found new evidence in lab-grown mouse brain cells, called astrocytes, that one root of Alzheimer's disease may be a simple imbalance in acid-alkaline-or pH-chemistry inside endosomes, the nutrient and chemical cargo shuttles in cells.