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ibex (īˈbĕks), wild goat, genus Capra, found in rugged country on mountain ranges from central Asia to the Himalayas, S Europe, and NE Africa. Ibexes are surefooted and agile; they usually travel in small herds of about a dozen animals, feeding on a wide variety of vegetation. Most of the isolated populations of the various ranges are races of the single species Capra ibex and differ chiefly in the size of their horns. Ibexes are brown to gray, from 21-2 to 31-2 ft (76–106 cm) tall at the shoulder, and very sturdily built. The chin is bearded, and the tail is short. The long, heavily ridged horns of the male curve up, back, and downward; in the Alpine race they form a semicircle and measure 30 in. (76 cm) along the edge. In some other races the male has still longer horns. The horns of the female are short and point straight back. The Alpine race is now found only on reserves in Switzerland. Closely related species are the tur, or Caucasian ibex (C. caucasia), of SE Russia; the Spanish ibex, or Spanish tur (C. pyrenaica), now extinct in the Pyrenees but still found in other parts of the Iberian Peninsula; and the markhor (C. falconeri), of central Asia. Ibexes and other goats are classified in the phylum Chordata, subphylum Vertebrata, class Mammalia, order Artiodactyla, family Bovidae.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(the brothers Tur), collective pen name of two Soviet Russian writers. Leonid Davydovich Tubel’skii, born Mar. 29 (Apr. 11), 1905, in the village of Tagancha, in what is now Cherkassy Oblast; died Feb. 14, 1961, in Moscow. Peter L’vovich Ryzhei, born Jan. 11 (24), 1908, in Kiev; died Oct. 2,1978, in Moscow.

The brothers Tur first appeared in print in 1925. They published the collections of feuilletons and sketches Rebellion of the Trifles (1926), Bombs and Bonbonnières (1929), and In Broad Daylight (1964). Of their many plays, the most important are Confrontation (1937; coauthor L. R. Sheinin), which concerns Soviet intelligence operatives, Sofia Kovalevskaia (1943), The Provincial Governor (1947), The Mansion in the Alley (1949), and Northern Madonna (1961), which deals with the struggle for peace. The brothers Tur characteristically combined elements of journalism and the detective story in their plays. Many films have been based on Tur’s plays and screenplays, including Meeting on the Elbe (1949; coauthor, Sheinin), which won the State Prize of the USSR in 1950. After the death of L. Tur, P. Tur collaborated with Ariadna Tur to write the plays Ambassador Extraordinary (1966; film version Ambassador of the Soviet Union) and The Sole Witness (1971).

P. Tur and L. Tur each were awarded two orders and various medals.


Mar’iamov, A. “Bor’ba za mir.” Iskusstvo kino, 1949, no. 2.
Abalkin, N. “V poiskakh konflikta.” Novyi mir, 1953, no. 5.
Kozhukhôva, G. “Pered litsom sovesti.” Pravda, Feb. 22,1971.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.